# Research Methods in Applied Settings: An Integrated Approach to Design and Analysis

By Jeffrey A. Gliner; George A. Morgan | Go to book overview
 Weak quasi-experiments versus moderate strength quasi-experiments versus strong quasi-experiments (chap. 7)

GLOSSARY
 Accessible Population The group of participants to which the researcher has access. The accessible portion of the theoretical population often referred to as the survey population or sampling frame. See also convenience sample. (chap. 10) Active Independent Variable Sometimes called a manipulated variable. An intervention or manipulated independent variable as opposed to one that is an attribute of the participants or their ongoing environment. A variable one level of which is given to one group of participants but not to another, within a specified period of time. Thus, a pretest and posttest are possible but not always done. (chap. 4) Actual Sample The sample of subjects that complete the study and whose data are actually used in the data analysis and report of the study's results. (chap. 10) Alternate Forms Reliability Also called equivalent or parallel forms reliability. A measure of the consistency or correlation between two supposedly equivalent versions of a test or inventory. (chap. 20) Alternative Hypothesis A statement predicting that a relationship exists between the variables being researched. The converse of the null hypothesis. If the null hypothesis is rejected, the alternative hypothesis is supported. (chap. 11) Analysis of Variance (see ANOVA) ANOVA A statistical method that uses the sums of the squares of the deviations from the means to test the differences among two or more groups; in most cases it allows the total variance to be separated and attributed to defined sources; the simplest case ANOVA compares the variability between groups (treatment variance plus error) to variability within groups (error). (chap. 13, 14, 15, 17, 18) Association When the same or paired participants have scores on two variables, the strength of their association can be analyzed by using techniques such as correlation (for two variables) or multiple regression (for more than one independent variable) or canonical correlation (for more than one independent and more than one dependent variable). (chap. 5, 16, 19) Associational Inferential Statistics A group or type of statistics that analyzes the associations or relationships among variables and tests of the statistical significance of the relationships. Includes correlation and multiple regression. See also: association. (chap. 5) Associational Research Approach Sometimes called correlational approach. A single group of subjects or matched pairs are used to examine the relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable. Usually variables measured are continuous or have five or more ordered levels; if so, correlation coefficient ( Pearson's or Spearman's) showing the strength of the association or relationship between variables can be computed. If the independent and dependent variables are nominal, phi or Cramer's V (if more than two levels of either variable) is the appropriate measure of association. (chap. 5, 13, 16, 19)

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