Handbook of Aviation Human Factors

By Daniel J. Garland; John A. Wise et al. | Go to book overview

some of that sophistication will be represented on the flight deck. Its effects are not uniformly positive, so the match between human and the computer in the air must be explored more intensively.

Another recommendation based on the literature review is that results achieved in the simulator should be validated in the air. Simulators have become highly realistic, but they may well lack certain features that can be found only in flight. The frequency with which part-task simulators and laboratories are used in aviation HF research makes one wonder whether precisely the same effects will be found in flight. It is true that there is in behavioral research as a whole little validation in the operational context of effects found in the laboratory, but flight represents a critically distinct environment from that in which most aviation behavioral studies are conducted.

A similar recommendation refers to test subjects. Although it is true that the majority of subjects in the studies reviewed were pilots, it is somewhat disturbing to see the large number of nonflying personnel who are used for this purpose. True, almost all nonpilots were used as subjects in nonflight studies, such as studies of displays, but if one believes that the experience of piloting is a distinctive one, it is possible that that experience generalizes to and subtly modifies nonpiloting activities. In any event, this matter should be looked into.

Finally, we note that the highest percentage of studies dealt with flight variables, and this is quite appropriate. The comparative indifference to other aviation aspects is somewhat disturbing, however. There has been in recent years increasing attention in aviation research to ground maintenance, but proportionately this area, although critical to flight safety, is underrepresented. By comparison, air traffic control (ATC) receives more attention, probably because of the immediacy of the relationships between ATC personnel and pilots. We would recommend a more intensive examination of how well ground maintainers function and the factors that affect that efficiency. A little more attention to passengers, too, would not be be amiss. The role of the passenger in flight is a very passive one, but on long-distance flights particularly the constraints involved in being a passenger are very evident.


American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. (1992). Guide to human performance measurement (Rep. No. BSR/AIAA, G-035-1992). New York: Author.

Aretz A. J. ( 1991). The design of electronic map displays. Human Factors, 33, 85-101.

Armstrong G. C. ( 1985). Computer-aided analysis of in-flight physiological measurement. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 17, 183-185.

Barthelemy K. K., Reising J. M., & Hartsock D. C. ( 1991, September). Target designation in a perspective view, 3-D map using a joystick, hand tracker, or voice. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Engineering Society (pp. 97-101). San Francisco, CA.

Battiste V., & Delzell S. ( 1991, June). Visual cues to geographical orientation during low-level flight. Proceedings of the Symposium on Aviation Psychology (pp. 566-571). Columbus, OH: Ohio State University.

Berger I. R. ( 1977, March). Flight performance and pilot workload in helicopter flight under simulated IMC employing a forward looking sensor (Rep. No. AGARD-CP-240). Proceedings of the Guidance and Control Design Considerations for Low-Altitude and Terminal-Area Flight. Neuilly-sur-Seine, France: AGARD.

Bowers C., Salas, E., C. Prince, & Brannick M. ( 1992). Games teams play: A method for investigating team coordination and performance. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 24, 503-506.

Brictson C. A. ( 1969, November). Operational measures of pilot performance during final approach to carrier landing (Rep. No. AGARD-CP-56). Proceedings of the Measurement of Aircrew Performance--The Flight Deck Workload and its Relation to Pilot Performance. Neuilly-sur-Seine, France: AGARD.


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Handbook of Aviation Human Factors
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Human Factors in Transportation ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Series Foreword xi
  • Preface xiii
  • I Introduction 1
  • 1: A Historical Overview of Human Factors in Aviation 3
  • References 13
  • 2: Aviation Research and Development: A Framework for the Effective Practice of Human Factors, or "What Your Mentor Never Told You About a Career in Human Factors . . ." 15
  • 3: Measurement in Aviation Systems 33
  • Summary Appraisal 46
  • References 47
  • 4: Underpinnings of System Evaluation 51
  • References 66
  • 5: Organizational Factors Associated With Safety and Mission Success in Aviation Environments 67
  • Conclusion 100
  • Acknowledgments 101
  • References 101
  • II Human Capabilities and Performance 105
  • 6: Processes Underlying Human Performance 107
  • Conclusion 166
  • References 168
  • 7: Automation in Aviation: A Human Factors Perspective 173
  • Conclusion 189
  • Acknowledgments 190
  • References 190
  • 8: Team Processes and Their Training in Aviation 193
  • References 211
  • 9: Crew Resource Management: A Time for Reflection 215
  • Conclusions 230
  • Acknowledgments 232
  • References 232
  • 10: Fatigue and Biological Rhythms 235
  • References 250
  • 11: Situation Awareness in Aviation Systems 257
  • References 274
  • 12: Aviation Personnel Selection and Training 277
  • References 305
  • III Aircraft 309
  • 13: Pilot Performance 311
  • References 323
  • 14: Controls, Displays, and Workplace Design 327
  • Conclusions 352
  • References 353
  • 15: Flight Simulation 355
  • Conclusion 384
  • Acknowledgments 384
  • References 384
  • 16: Human Factors Considerations in Aircraft Cabin Design 389
  • Conclusion 403
  • References 403
  • 17: Helicopter Human Factors 405
  • Summary 423
  • References 428
  • IV Air Traffic Control 429
  • 18: Air Traffic Control 431
  • Suggested Reading 454
  • 19: Air Traffic Controller Memory: Capabilities, Limitations, and Volatility 455
  • References 488
  • 20: Air Traffic Control Automation 497
  • References 515
  • 21: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control/Flight Deck Integration: Implications of Data-Link Simulation Research 519
  • References 544
  • V Aviation Operations And Design 547
  • 22: Human Factors of Functionality and Intelligent Avionics 549
  • Conclusion 563
  • References 564
  • 23: Weather Information Presentation 567
  • References 588
  • 24: Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance 591
  • References 603
  • 25: Human Factors in U.S. Civil Aviation Security 607
  • Epilogue 630
  • References 630
  • 26: Aviation Incident and Accident Investigation 631
  • Conclusion 640
  • References 641
  • 27: Forensic Aviation Human Factors [Accident/Incident Analyses for Legal Proceedings] 643
  • Introduction 644
  • References 668
  • Author Index 669
  • Subject Index 685


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