Handbook of Aviation Human Factors

By Daniel J. Garland; John A. Wise et al. | Go to book overview
Considering the codings used in the task as a whole, rather than for isolated subtasks.
Orienting cognitive task analysis toward the cognitive goals or functions to be met, as an intermediary between the task goals and the cognitive processing. (Analyzing either goals or working methods alone is necessary but not sufficient.)
Designing the interface, training, and allocation of function between people and machines, to support the person's development and use of the contextual overview, alternative strategies, and the processes involved in the development of new working methods.
Extending human error schemes to include difficulties with the overview and with the organization of sequences of behavior.

The second group of issues is concerned with a fundamental complexity problem in human behavior and therefore in HF/E. Human behavior is adapted to the particular circumstances in which it is done. This does not make it impossible to develop a general model of human behavior, but it does make it impossible to predict human behavior in detail. Predicting human behavior is like weather prediction: It is not possible to be right, but it is possible to be useful. Any HF/E answer is always going to be context sensitive. The continuing complaint of HF/E practitioners, that researchers do not provide them with what they need, is a consequence of the fundamental nature of human behavior. Specific tests of what happens in specific circumstances will always be necessary. What models of human behavior can provide is, not the details, but the key issues to focus on when doing such tests or when developing and applying HF/E techniques.


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Atkinson W. H., Crumley L. M., & Willis M. P. ( 1952). A study of the requirements for letters, numbers and markings to be used on trans-illuminated aircraft control panels. Part 5: the comparative legibility of three fonts for numerals (Report No. TED NAM EL-609, part 5). Naval Air Material Center, Aeronautical Medical Equipment Laboratory.

Bailey R. W. ( 1989). Human performance engineering: A guide for system designers ( 2nd ed.). London: Prentice Hall.

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Bainbridge L. ( 1978). "Forgotten alternatives in skill and workload". Ergonomics, 21, 169-185.

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Bainbridge L. ( 1988). "Types of representation". In L. P. Goodstein, H. B. Anderson, & S. E. Olsen (Eds.), Tasks, errors and mental models (pp. 70-91). London: Taylor & Francis.

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Bainbridge L. ( 1993a). Building up behavioural complexity from a cognitive processing element (p. 95). London: Department of Psychology, University College London.

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Handbook of Aviation Human Factors
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Human Factors in Transportation ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Series Foreword xi
  • Preface xiii
  • I Introduction 1
  • 1: A Historical Overview of Human Factors in Aviation 3
  • References 13
  • 2: Aviation Research and Development: A Framework for the Effective Practice of Human Factors, or "What Your Mentor Never Told You About a Career in Human Factors . . ." 15
  • 3: Measurement in Aviation Systems 33
  • Summary Appraisal 46
  • References 47
  • 4: Underpinnings of System Evaluation 51
  • References 66
  • 5: Organizational Factors Associated With Safety and Mission Success in Aviation Environments 67
  • Conclusion 100
  • Acknowledgments 101
  • References 101
  • II Human Capabilities and Performance 105
  • 6: Processes Underlying Human Performance 107
  • Conclusion 166
  • References 168
  • 7: Automation in Aviation: A Human Factors Perspective 173
  • Conclusion 189
  • Acknowledgments 190
  • References 190
  • 8: Team Processes and Their Training in Aviation 193
  • References 211
  • 9: Crew Resource Management: A Time for Reflection 215
  • Conclusions 230
  • Acknowledgments 232
  • References 232
  • 10: Fatigue and Biological Rhythms 235
  • References 250
  • 11: Situation Awareness in Aviation Systems 257
  • References 274
  • 12: Aviation Personnel Selection and Training 277
  • References 305
  • III Aircraft 309
  • 13: Pilot Performance 311
  • References 323
  • 14: Controls, Displays, and Workplace Design 327
  • Conclusions 352
  • References 353
  • 15: Flight Simulation 355
  • Conclusion 384
  • Acknowledgments 384
  • References 384
  • 16: Human Factors Considerations in Aircraft Cabin Design 389
  • Conclusion 403
  • References 403
  • 17: Helicopter Human Factors 405
  • Summary 423
  • References 428
  • IV Air Traffic Control 429
  • 18: Air Traffic Control 431
  • Suggested Reading 454
  • 19: Air Traffic Controller Memory: Capabilities, Limitations, and Volatility 455
  • References 488
  • 20: Air Traffic Control Automation 497
  • References 515
  • 21: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control/Flight Deck Integration: Implications of Data-Link Simulation Research 519
  • References 544
  • V Aviation Operations And Design 547
  • 22: Human Factors of Functionality and Intelligent Avionics 549
  • Conclusion 563
  • References 564
  • 23: Weather Information Presentation 567
  • References 588
  • 24: Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance 591
  • References 603
  • 25: Human Factors in U.S. Civil Aviation Security 607
  • Epilogue 630
  • References 630
  • 26: Aviation Incident and Accident Investigation 631
  • Conclusion 640
  • References 641
  • 27: Forensic Aviation Human Factors [Accident/Incident Analyses for Legal Proceedings] 643
  • Introduction 644
  • References 668
  • Author Index 669
  • Subject Index 685


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