|•||Considering the codings used in the task as a whole, rather than for isolated subtasks.|
|•||Orienting cognitive task analysis toward the cognitive goals or functions to be met, as an intermediary between the task goals and the cognitive processing. (Analyzing either goals or working methods alone is necessary but not sufficient.)|
|•||Designing the interface, training, and allocation of function between people and machines, to support the person's development and use of the contextual overview, alternative strategies, and the processes involved in the development of new working methods.|
|•||Extending human error schemes to include difficulties with the overview and with the organization of sequences of behavior.|
The second group of issues is concerned with a fundamental complexity problem in human behavior and therefore in HF/E. Human behavior is adapted to the particular circumstances in which it is done. This does not make it impossible to develop a general model of human behavior, but it does make it impossible to predict human behavior in detail. Predicting human behavior is like weather prediction: It is not possible to be right, but it is possible to be useful. Any HF/E answer is always going to be context sensitive. The continuing complaint of HF/E practitioners, that researchers do not provide them with what they need, is a consequence of the fundamental nature of human behavior. Specific tests of what happens in specific circumstances will always be necessary. What models of human behavior can provide is, not the details, but the key issues to focus on when doing such tests or when developing and applying HF/E techniques.
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