Handbook of Aviation Human Factors

By Daniel J. Garland; John A. Wise et al. | Go to book overview

7
Automation in Aviation: A Human Factors Perspective

René R. Amalberti Val de Grâce Military Hospital, Paris, and Institut de Médecine Aéronautique du Service de Santé des Armées (IMASSA), Brétigny-sur-Orge cedex, France

Aircraft automation is part of a vast movement to improve and control performance and risks in our so-called "advanced societies." Beyond the consequences for crews, automation is incorporated into the global evolution of these advanced societies as a tool providing people with more comfort and happiness, better performance, and fewer problems. But automation is also part of the aviation business and gives rise to permanent national and international competition between manufacturers. Inevitably accidents, incidents, and successes feed this competition and are overexploited by the press.

From a technical point of view, any new technology calls for a period of adaptation to eliminate residual problems and to allow users to adapt to it. This period can take several years, with successive cycles of optimization for design, training, and regulation. This was the case when jets replaced propeller planes. The introduction of aircraft like the B707 or the B727 were major events in aviation. These cycles are invariably fraught with difficulties of all types including accidents. People do not yet know how to optimize complex systems and reach the maximum safety level without field experience. The major reason for this long adaptive process is the need for harmonization between the new design on one hand and the policies, procedures, and moreover the mentalities of the whole aviation system on the other hand. This harmonization goes far beyond the first months or years following the introduction of the new system, both because of the superimposition of old and modern technologies during several years, and because of the natural reluctance of people and systems to change.

This is also true for the automation of cockpits. The current transition phase from classic aircraft to glass cockpits has been marked by a series of major pilot-error- induced incidents and accidents. Some of these human errors have been recognized as facilitated by technical drawbacks in the design, operation, and/or training of automated aircraft.

An important question for the aviation community is to determine what part of these identified design, operations, procedures, and training drawbacks would disappear with appropriate personnel training and regulation but without design change.

-173-

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Handbook of Aviation Human Factors
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Human Factors in Transportation ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Series Foreword xi
  • Preface xiii
  • I Introduction 1
  • 1: A Historical Overview of Human Factors in Aviation 3
  • References 13
  • 2: Aviation Research and Development: A Framework for the Effective Practice of Human Factors, or "What Your Mentor Never Told You About a Career in Human Factors . . ." 15
  • 3: Measurement in Aviation Systems 33
  • Summary Appraisal 46
  • References 47
  • 4: Underpinnings of System Evaluation 51
  • References 66
  • 5: Organizational Factors Associated With Safety and Mission Success in Aviation Environments 67
  • Conclusion 100
  • Acknowledgments 101
  • References 101
  • II Human Capabilities and Performance 105
  • 6: Processes Underlying Human Performance 107
  • Conclusion 166
  • References 168
  • 7: Automation in Aviation: A Human Factors Perspective 173
  • Conclusion 189
  • Acknowledgments 190
  • References 190
  • 8: Team Processes and Their Training in Aviation 193
  • References 211
  • 9: Crew Resource Management: A Time for Reflection 215
  • Conclusions 230
  • Acknowledgments 232
  • References 232
  • 10: Fatigue and Biological Rhythms 235
  • References 250
  • 11: Situation Awareness in Aviation Systems 257
  • References 274
  • 12: Aviation Personnel Selection and Training 277
  • References 305
  • III Aircraft 309
  • 13: Pilot Performance 311
  • References 323
  • 14: Controls, Displays, and Workplace Design 327
  • Conclusions 352
  • References 353
  • 15: Flight Simulation 355
  • Conclusion 384
  • Acknowledgments 384
  • References 384
  • 16: Human Factors Considerations in Aircraft Cabin Design 389
  • Conclusion 403
  • References 403
  • 17: Helicopter Human Factors 405
  • Summary 423
  • References 428
  • IV Air Traffic Control 429
  • 18: Air Traffic Control 431
  • Suggested Reading 454
  • 19: Air Traffic Controller Memory: Capabilities, Limitations, and Volatility 455
  • References 488
  • 20: Air Traffic Control Automation 497
  • References 515
  • 21: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control/Flight Deck Integration: Implications of Data-Link Simulation Research 519
  • References 544
  • V Aviation Operations And Design 547
  • 22: Human Factors of Functionality and Intelligent Avionics 549
  • Conclusion 563
  • References 564
  • 23: Weather Information Presentation 567
  • References 588
  • 24: Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance 591
  • References 603
  • 25: Human Factors in U.S. Civil Aviation Security 607
  • Epilogue 630
  • References 630
  • 26: Aviation Incident and Accident Investigation 631
  • Conclusion 640
  • References 641
  • 27: Forensic Aviation Human Factors [Accident/Incident Analyses for Legal Proceedings] 643
  • Introduction 644
  • References 668
  • Author Index 669
  • Subject Index 685
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