Handbook of Aviation Human Factors

By Daniel J. Garland; John A. Wise et al. | Go to book overview

emergence of airplane manufacturers in Asia, that adequate predictive models of how the aviation system will adapt are still challenging human factors and the entire aviation community.

Need for a Different Perpective in Interpreting and Using Flight Experience Through Aviation-Reporting Systems. We have seen throughout this chapter that the safety policies have long given priority to suppressing all identified human errors by all means (protections, automation, training). This attitude was of great value for enhancing safety while the global aviation system was not mature and the rate of accidents was over one accident per million departures. Nowadays the problem is different with a change of paradigm. The global aviation system has become extremely sure, and the solutions that have been efficient up to this level are losing their efficiency.

However, for the moment, the general trend is to continue to optimize the same solutions: asking for more incident reports, detecting more errors, suppressing more errors. The aviation reporting systems are exploding under the amount of information to be stored and analyzed (over 40,000 files per year in only the U.S. ASRS), and the suppression of errors often results in new errors occurring. There is an urgent need to reconsider the meaning of errors in a very safe environment and to reconsider the relationship between human error and accident. Such programs are in progress at Civil Aviation Authorities of the United Kindgom (CAA UK) and the French Direction Générale de l'Aviation Civile (DGAC) and could result in different data exploiting and preventative actions.

Barriers to Implementing Solutions . The FAA human factors report ( Abbott et al., 1996) has listed several generic barriers to implementing new human factors approaches in industry; among them were the cost-effectiveness of these solutions, the maturity of human factors solutions, the turf protection, the lack of education, and the industry difficulty with human factors. These reasons are effective barriers, but there are also strong indications that human factors will be much more considered in the near future. The need on the part of industry is obvious with the growing complexity of systems and environment. Also, mentalities have changed and are much more oriented to listening to new directions.

An incredible window of opportunity is open. The duration of this window will depend on the capacity of human factors specialists to educate industry and propose viable and consistent solutions. To succeed, it is urgent to turn from a dominant critical attitude to a constructive attitude. It is also important to avoid focusing on the lessons from the last war and to anticipate future problems, such as the coming of datalink and the cultural outcomes.


CONCLUSION

Several paradoxical and chronic handicaps have slowed down the consideration of human factors in aviation's recent past. First and fortunately, the technique has proven its high efficiency, improving performance and safety of the aviation system so far that a deep human factors revisitation of the fundamentals of design was long judged as not useful. Second, human factors people themselves served the discipline poorly in the 1970s by presenting most solutions at a surface level. Whatever the value of

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Handbook of Aviation Human Factors
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Human Factors in Transportation ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Series Foreword xi
  • Preface xiii
  • I Introduction 1
  • 1: A Historical Overview of Human Factors in Aviation 3
  • References 13
  • 2: Aviation Research and Development: A Framework for the Effective Practice of Human Factors, or "What Your Mentor Never Told You About a Career in Human Factors . . ." 15
  • 3: Measurement in Aviation Systems 33
  • Summary Appraisal 46
  • References 47
  • 4: Underpinnings of System Evaluation 51
  • References 66
  • 5: Organizational Factors Associated With Safety and Mission Success in Aviation Environments 67
  • Conclusion 100
  • Acknowledgments 101
  • References 101
  • II Human Capabilities and Performance 105
  • 6: Processes Underlying Human Performance 107
  • Conclusion 166
  • References 168
  • 7: Automation in Aviation: A Human Factors Perspective 173
  • Conclusion 189
  • Acknowledgments 190
  • References 190
  • 8: Team Processes and Their Training in Aviation 193
  • References 211
  • 9: Crew Resource Management: A Time for Reflection 215
  • Conclusions 230
  • Acknowledgments 232
  • References 232
  • 10: Fatigue and Biological Rhythms 235
  • References 250
  • 11: Situation Awareness in Aviation Systems 257
  • References 274
  • 12: Aviation Personnel Selection and Training 277
  • References 305
  • III Aircraft 309
  • 13: Pilot Performance 311
  • References 323
  • 14: Controls, Displays, and Workplace Design 327
  • Conclusions 352
  • References 353
  • 15: Flight Simulation 355
  • Conclusion 384
  • Acknowledgments 384
  • References 384
  • 16: Human Factors Considerations in Aircraft Cabin Design 389
  • Conclusion 403
  • References 403
  • 17: Helicopter Human Factors 405
  • Summary 423
  • References 428
  • IV Air Traffic Control 429
  • 18: Air Traffic Control 431
  • Suggested Reading 454
  • 19: Air Traffic Controller Memory: Capabilities, Limitations, and Volatility 455
  • References 488
  • 20: Air Traffic Control Automation 497
  • References 515
  • 21: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control/Flight Deck Integration: Implications of Data-Link Simulation Research 519
  • References 544
  • V Aviation Operations And Design 547
  • 22: Human Factors of Functionality and Intelligent Avionics 549
  • Conclusion 563
  • References 564
  • 23: Weather Information Presentation 567
  • References 588
  • 24: Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance 591
  • References 603
  • 25: Human Factors in U.S. Civil Aviation Security 607
  • Epilogue 630
  • References 630
  • 26: Aviation Incident and Accident Investigation 631
  • Conclusion 640
  • References 641
  • 27: Forensic Aviation Human Factors [Accident/Incident Analyses for Legal Proceedings] 643
  • Introduction 644
  • References 668
  • Author Index 669
  • Subject Index 685
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