emergence of airplane manufacturers in Asia, that adequate predictive models of how the aviation system will adapt are still challenging human factors and the entire aviation community.
Need for a Different Perpective in Interpreting and Using Flight Experience Through Aviation-Reporting Systems. We have seen throughout this chapter that the safety policies have long given priority to suppressing all identified human errors by all means (protections, automation, training). This attitude was of great value for enhancing safety while the global aviation system was not mature and the rate of accidents was over one accident per million departures. Nowadays the problem is different with a change of paradigm. The global aviation system has become extremely sure, and the solutions that have been efficient up to this level are losing their efficiency.
However, for the moment, the general trend is to continue to optimize the same solutions: asking for more incident reports, detecting more errors, suppressing more errors. The aviation reporting systems are exploding under the amount of information to be stored and analyzed (over 40,000 files per year in only the U.S. ASRS), and the suppression of errors often results in new errors occurring. There is an urgent need to reconsider the meaning of errors in a very safe environment and to reconsider the relationship between human error and accident. Such programs are in progress at Civil Aviation Authorities of the United Kindgom (CAA UK) and the French Direction Générale de l'Aviation Civile (DGAC) and could result in different data exploiting and preventative actions.
Barriers to Implementing Solutions . The FAA human factors report ( Abbott et al., 1996) has listed several generic barriers to implementing new human factors approaches in industry; among them were the cost-effectiveness of these solutions, the maturity of human factors solutions, the turf protection, the lack of education, and the industry difficulty with human factors. These reasons are effective barriers, but there are also strong indications that human factors will be much more considered in the near future. The need on the part of industry is obvious with the growing complexity of systems and environment. Also, mentalities have changed and are much more oriented to listening to new directions.
An incredible window of opportunity is open. The duration of this window will depend on the capacity of human factors specialists to educate industry and propose viable and consistent solutions. To succeed, it is urgent to turn from a dominant critical attitude to a constructive attitude. It is also important to avoid focusing on the lessons from the last war and to anticipate future problems, such as the coming of datalink and the cultural outcomes.
Several paradoxical and chronic handicaps have slowed down the consideration of human factors in aviation's recent past. First and fortunately, the technique has proven its high efficiency, improving performance and safety of the aviation system so far that a deep human factors revisitation of the fundamentals of design was long judged as not useful. Second, human factors people themselves served the discipline poorly in the 1970s by presenting most solutions at a surface level. Whatever the value of