Handbook of Aviation Human Factors

By Daniel J. Garland; John A. Wise et al. | Go to book overview

9
Crew Resource Management: A Time for Reflection

Daniel E. Maurino International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

Although there is no real possibility of a quantitative evaluation of the benefits, no airline having set up a CRM program would now consider to kill it.

-- Pariès and Amalberti

Despite their rather gloom and ominous remark, it would be quite mistaken to consider Pariès and Amalberti prophets of doom. The remark reflects the concerns of many within the international aviation human factors community who believe that Crew Resource Management (CRM) is an essential prevention tool in the contemporary aviation system, and who haven taken to critically review CRM and its history to ensure that there is a meaningful future for this training in aviation. The history of CRM appears to be one of extreme success: With barely enough age to vote, CRM has already been assigned a significant role as contributor to the safety and efficiency of the aviation system. It is perceived by user population and regulatory community alike as a sound way to proceed. In fact, nobody would dare say that CRM does not work.

There is, however, more than meets the eye in the successful history of the development, implementation, and operational practice of CRM. Without casting doubts about its value, there are certain quarters that suggest caution about what the future might hold, because they perceive that the relationship between CRM and improved safety is still tenuous. In these quarters, the prevailing attitude is one of critical vigil. Neither endorsing optimists nor sceptics, nor denying eventual merits in each relative position, it is contended that there are present-day issues which, in the best interests of CRM itself, must not be ignored.

The literature in regards to CRM is abundant ( Cooper, White, & Lauber, 1979; Hayward & Lowe, 1993; Orlady & Foushee, 1986; Wiener, Kanki, & Helmreich, 1993). Readers interested in CRM development, implementation, and current practices may refer to these and many other existing publications. This chapter does not discuss CRM in itself; rather, it assesses some of the issues that might affect its future. Such assessment is conducted within the framework provided by a historical review of the evolution

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Handbook of Aviation Human Factors
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Human Factors in Transportation ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Series Foreword xi
  • Preface xiii
  • I Introduction 1
  • 1: A Historical Overview of Human Factors in Aviation 3
  • References 13
  • 2: Aviation Research and Development: A Framework for the Effective Practice of Human Factors, or "What Your Mentor Never Told You About a Career in Human Factors . . ." 15
  • 3: Measurement in Aviation Systems 33
  • Summary Appraisal 46
  • References 47
  • 4: Underpinnings of System Evaluation 51
  • References 66
  • 5: Organizational Factors Associated With Safety and Mission Success in Aviation Environments 67
  • Conclusion 100
  • Acknowledgments 101
  • References 101
  • II Human Capabilities and Performance 105
  • 6: Processes Underlying Human Performance 107
  • Conclusion 166
  • References 168
  • 7: Automation in Aviation: A Human Factors Perspective 173
  • Conclusion 189
  • Acknowledgments 190
  • References 190
  • 8: Team Processes and Their Training in Aviation 193
  • References 211
  • 9: Crew Resource Management: A Time for Reflection 215
  • Conclusions 230
  • Acknowledgments 232
  • References 232
  • 10: Fatigue and Biological Rhythms 235
  • References 250
  • 11: Situation Awareness in Aviation Systems 257
  • References 274
  • 12: Aviation Personnel Selection and Training 277
  • References 305
  • III Aircraft 309
  • 13: Pilot Performance 311
  • References 323
  • 14: Controls, Displays, and Workplace Design 327
  • Conclusions 352
  • References 353
  • 15: Flight Simulation 355
  • Conclusion 384
  • Acknowledgments 384
  • References 384
  • 16: Human Factors Considerations in Aircraft Cabin Design 389
  • Conclusion 403
  • References 403
  • 17: Helicopter Human Factors 405
  • Summary 423
  • References 428
  • IV Air Traffic Control 429
  • 18: Air Traffic Control 431
  • Suggested Reading 454
  • 19: Air Traffic Controller Memory: Capabilities, Limitations, and Volatility 455
  • References 488
  • 20: Air Traffic Control Automation 497
  • References 515
  • 21: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control/Flight Deck Integration: Implications of Data-Link Simulation Research 519
  • References 544
  • V Aviation Operations And Design 547
  • 22: Human Factors of Functionality and Intelligent Avionics 549
  • Conclusion 563
  • References 564
  • 23: Weather Information Presentation 567
  • References 588
  • 24: Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance 591
  • References 603
  • 25: Human Factors in U.S. Civil Aviation Security 607
  • Epilogue 630
  • References 630
  • 26: Aviation Incident and Accident Investigation 631
  • Conclusion 640
  • References 641
  • 27: Forensic Aviation Human Factors [Accident/Incident Analyses for Legal Proceedings] 643
  • Introduction 644
  • References 668
  • Author Index 669
  • Subject Index 685
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