Handbook of Aviation Human Factors

By Daniel J. Garland; John A. Wise et al. | Go to book overview

proposed by several authors and institutions ( International Labour Office, 1988; Koller, 1989; Rutenfranz, 1982; Rutenfranz et al., 1985; Scott & LaDou, 1990).

Work at night and on irregular shift schedules should be restricted for people suffering from severe disorders that are associated with or can be aggravated by shift lag and jet lag, in particular, important gastrointestinal diseases (e.g., peptic ulcer, chronic hepatitis, and pancreatitis); insulin-dependent diabetes, as regular and proper food intake and correct therapeutic timing are required; hormonal pathologies (e.g., thyroid and suprarenal gland), because they demand regular drug assumption strictly connected to the activity/rest periods; epilepsy, as the seizures can be favored by sleep deprivation and the efficacy of treatment can be hampered by irregular wake-rest schedules; chronic psychiatric disorders, depression in particular, as they are often associated with a disruption of the sleep /wakefulness cycle and can be influenced by the light/dark periods; chronic sleep disturbances; and coronary heart diseases, severe hypertension, and asthma, as exacerbations are more likely to occur at night and treatment is less effective at certain hours of the day.

Moreover, occupational health doctors should consider very carefully those who may be expected to encounter more difficulty in coping with night work and jet lag on the basis of their psychophysiological characteristics, health, and living conditions, such as age over 50; low amplitude and stability of circadian rhythms; rigidity of sleeping habits and low ability to overcome drowsiness; extreme morningness; high neuroticism; unsatisfactory housing conditions; and women with small children but lacking social support.

Therefore, medical checks have to be focused mainly on sleeping habits and troubles, eating and digestive problems, psychosomatic complaints, drug consumption, housing conditions, transport facilities, work loads, and off-job activities, preferably using standardized questionnaires, checklists, and rating scales, in order to monitor the worker's behavior throughout the years.

Besides this, permanent education and counseling should be provided for improving self-care strategies for coping, in particular as concerns sleep, smoking, diet, drugs, stress management, and physical fitness.

The adoption of these criteria could also improve the efficacy of preemployment screenings, in order to avoid allocating some people, who are more vulnerable in circadian rhythmic structure and psychophysical homeostasis to jobs that require shift and night work.


Adams J., Folkard S., & Young M. ( 1986). "Coping strategies used by nurses on night duty". Ergonomics, 29, 185-196.

Åkerstedt T. ( 1985a). "Adjustment of physiological circadian rhythms and the sleep-wake cycle to shiftwork". In S. Folkard & T. H. Monk (Eds.), Hours of work: Temporal factors in work scheduling (pp. 185-197). Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons.

Åkerstedt T. ( 1985b). "Shifted sleep hours". Annals of Clinical Research, 17, 273-279.

Åkerstedt T. ( 1990a). "Psychological and psychophysiological effects of shiftwork". Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment and Health, 16, 67-73.

Åkerstedt T. ( 1990b). Wide awake at odd hours. Shift work, time zones and burning the midnight oil (pp. 1-116). Stockholm: Swedish Council for Work Life Research.

Åkerstedt T., & Gillberg M. ( 1981). "The circadian variation of experimentally displaced sleep". Sleep, 4, 159-169.


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Handbook of Aviation Human Factors
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Human Factors in Transportation ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Series Foreword xi
  • Preface xiii
  • I Introduction 1
  • 1: A Historical Overview of Human Factors in Aviation 3
  • References 13
  • 2: Aviation Research and Development: A Framework for the Effective Practice of Human Factors, or "What Your Mentor Never Told You About a Career in Human Factors . . ." 15
  • 3: Measurement in Aviation Systems 33
  • Summary Appraisal 46
  • References 47
  • 4: Underpinnings of System Evaluation 51
  • References 66
  • 5: Organizational Factors Associated With Safety and Mission Success in Aviation Environments 67
  • Conclusion 100
  • Acknowledgments 101
  • References 101
  • II Human Capabilities and Performance 105
  • 6: Processes Underlying Human Performance 107
  • Conclusion 166
  • References 168
  • 7: Automation in Aviation: A Human Factors Perspective 173
  • Conclusion 189
  • Acknowledgments 190
  • References 190
  • 8: Team Processes and Their Training in Aviation 193
  • References 211
  • 9: Crew Resource Management: A Time for Reflection 215
  • Conclusions 230
  • Acknowledgments 232
  • References 232
  • 10: Fatigue and Biological Rhythms 235
  • References 250
  • 11: Situation Awareness in Aviation Systems 257
  • References 274
  • 12: Aviation Personnel Selection and Training 277
  • References 305
  • III Aircraft 309
  • 13: Pilot Performance 311
  • References 323
  • 14: Controls, Displays, and Workplace Design 327
  • Conclusions 352
  • References 353
  • 15: Flight Simulation 355
  • Conclusion 384
  • Acknowledgments 384
  • References 384
  • 16: Human Factors Considerations in Aircraft Cabin Design 389
  • Conclusion 403
  • References 403
  • 17: Helicopter Human Factors 405
  • Summary 423
  • References 428
  • IV Air Traffic Control 429
  • 18: Air Traffic Control 431
  • Suggested Reading 454
  • 19: Air Traffic Controller Memory: Capabilities, Limitations, and Volatility 455
  • References 488
  • 20: Air Traffic Control Automation 497
  • References 515
  • 21: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control/Flight Deck Integration: Implications of Data-Link Simulation Research 519
  • References 544
  • V Aviation Operations And Design 547
  • 22: Human Factors of Functionality and Intelligent Avionics 549
  • Conclusion 563
  • References 564
  • 23: Weather Information Presentation 567
  • References 588
  • 24: Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance 591
  • References 603
  • 25: Human Factors in U.S. Civil Aviation Security 607
  • Epilogue 630
  • References 630
  • 26: Aviation Incident and Accident Investigation 631
  • Conclusion 640
  • References 641
  • 27: Forensic Aviation Human Factors [Accident/Incident Analyses for Legal Proceedings] 643
  • Introduction 644
  • References 668
  • Author Index 669
  • Subject Index 685


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