Handbook of Aviation Human Factors

By Daniel J. Garland; John A. Wise et al. | Go to book overview

subjects fed a vitamin A-restricted diet. Currently, the ready availability of daily vitamin supplements and the general level of nutrition of the population as a whole have tended to virtually eliminate any concern about a lack of vitamin C on the health of skin, gums, and capillary system or a degradation in the pilot's nervous system, appetite, or carbohydrate metabolism due to a deficiency in the B vitamin complex. However, the intrinsic nature of airline operations inevitably results in some irregularity in the eating habits of the commercial pilot. Extended periods without eating can result in low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Although the effects of long-term diet deficiency are generally agreed on (marked reduction in endurance and a correspondingly smaller degradation of physical strength), the exact relationship between immediate blood sugar level and performance is less well established. Keys ( 1946) demonstrated that reaction time was degraded at blood sugar levels below 65-70 mg%.


SUMMARY

The importance of each and every one of the variables described in this section is sufficient that all are the subjects of book chapters and, in many cases, entire texts in their own right. The best that can be hoped is that the foregoing will create a sensitivity to the complexity of the topic field of pilot performance. There is much work that remains to be done in developing more objective methods for measuring the essential components of piloting skill. Even more challenging is the pressing need to define and quantify the cognitive components of the concept of pilot workload. Because of the economic and safety implications of aging on both the airline industry and the pilot ranks, the issue of aging will remain a major topic of interest and concern. Because age does not seem to be a prime determinant of sudden in-flight incapacitation, additional effort is clearly needed to determine the physical factors that can be effective in predicting such occurrences. We already know enough to be certain of the negative impacts of alcohol, smoking, and controlled substances on pilot performance. In short, it is unfortunately clear that, although pilot performance is unquestionably the most critical element in flight safety, it is the aircraft system area about which we know far less than we should.


REFERENCES

Aksnes E. G. ( 1954). Effects of small doses of alcohol upon performance in a link trainer. Journal of Aviation Medicine, 25, 680-688.

Atsumi B., Sigura S., & Kimura K. ( 1993). Evaluation of mental workload in vehicle driving by analysis of heart rate variability. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 37th Annual Meeting, 1, 574-578.

Ayoub M. M. ( 1969). Performance and recovery under prolonged vibration. Unpublished manuscript, School of Engineering, Texas Technological College, Lubbock, TX.

Barbre W. E., & Price D. L. ( 1983). Effects of alcohol and error criticality on alphanumeric target acquisition. Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 27th Annual Meeting, 1, 468-471.

Bennett G. ( 1972, October). Pilot incapacitation. Flight International, pp. 569-571.

Billings C. E., Wick R. L., Gerke R J., & Chase R. C. ( 1973). Effects of ethyl alcohol on pilot performance. Aerospace Medicine, 44, 379-382.

Birren J. E., & Shock N. W. ( 1950). Age changes in rate and level of visual dark adaptation. Applied Physiology, 2( 7), 407-411.

-323-

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Handbook of Aviation Human Factors
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Human Factors in Transportation ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Series Foreword xi
  • Preface xiii
  • I Introduction 1
  • 1: A Historical Overview of Human Factors in Aviation 3
  • References 13
  • 2: Aviation Research and Development: A Framework for the Effective Practice of Human Factors, or "What Your Mentor Never Told You About a Career in Human Factors . . ." 15
  • 3: Measurement in Aviation Systems 33
  • Summary Appraisal 46
  • References 47
  • 4: Underpinnings of System Evaluation 51
  • References 66
  • 5: Organizational Factors Associated With Safety and Mission Success in Aviation Environments 67
  • Conclusion 100
  • Acknowledgments 101
  • References 101
  • II Human Capabilities and Performance 105
  • 6: Processes Underlying Human Performance 107
  • Conclusion 166
  • References 168
  • 7: Automation in Aviation: A Human Factors Perspective 173
  • Conclusion 189
  • Acknowledgments 190
  • References 190
  • 8: Team Processes and Their Training in Aviation 193
  • References 211
  • 9: Crew Resource Management: A Time for Reflection 215
  • Conclusions 230
  • Acknowledgments 232
  • References 232
  • 10: Fatigue and Biological Rhythms 235
  • References 250
  • 11: Situation Awareness in Aviation Systems 257
  • References 274
  • 12: Aviation Personnel Selection and Training 277
  • References 305
  • III Aircraft 309
  • 13: Pilot Performance 311
  • References 323
  • 14: Controls, Displays, and Workplace Design 327
  • Conclusions 352
  • References 353
  • 15: Flight Simulation 355
  • Conclusion 384
  • Acknowledgments 384
  • References 384
  • 16: Human Factors Considerations in Aircraft Cabin Design 389
  • Conclusion 403
  • References 403
  • 17: Helicopter Human Factors 405
  • Summary 423
  • References 428
  • IV Air Traffic Control 429
  • 18: Air Traffic Control 431
  • Suggested Reading 454
  • 19: Air Traffic Controller Memory: Capabilities, Limitations, and Volatility 455
  • References 488
  • 20: Air Traffic Control Automation 497
  • References 515
  • 21: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control/Flight Deck Integration: Implications of Data-Link Simulation Research 519
  • References 544
  • V Aviation Operations And Design 547
  • 22: Human Factors of Functionality and Intelligent Avionics 549
  • Conclusion 563
  • References 564
  • 23: Weather Information Presentation 567
  • References 588
  • 24: Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance 591
  • References 603
  • 25: Human Factors in U.S. Civil Aviation Security 607
  • Epilogue 630
  • References 630
  • 26: Aviation Incident and Accident Investigation 631
  • Conclusion 640
  • References 641
  • 27: Forensic Aviation Human Factors [Accident/Incident Analyses for Legal Proceedings] 643
  • Introduction 644
  • References 668
  • Author Index 669
  • Subject Index 685
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