Handbook of Aviation Human Factors

By Daniel J. Garland; John A. Wise et al. | Go to book overview
Studies demonstrating the cost effectiveness of lower fidelity simulations are needed. These simulations could then be utilized by general, military, and commercial aviation.

CONCLUSION

This chapter began with the specification of the "human factor requirements" for the U.S. Army's first heavier-than-air flying machine. If we were to rewrite this statement as a requirement for today's flight simulator, perhaps it might read: "The flight simulator's cost-effective design should incorporate only those cues (at the appropriate level of fidelity) and instructional features necessary to permit an intelligent person to effectively learn and demonstrate the required skills at an appropriate level of proficiency within a reasonable period of time." Wilbur and Orville Wright delivered their heavier-than-air flying machine within 7 months after contract award. However, responding to the specification just given will take considerably longer and require more assets. Nonetheless, this specification is presented as a challenge to individuals involved in flight simulation. Indeed, if flight simulation is to advance, we must respond to the elements of this revised specification.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors acknowledge the assistance of their colleagues and students at the University of Dayton and the University of Cincinnati. The assistance of friends in the aviation community, who not only shared material from their archives with us, but reviewed portions of the chapter, is also recognized. Finally, the authors thank their wives, Kathy and Hope, for their patience and support.


REFERENCES

Adorian P., Staynes W. N., & Bolton M. ( 1979). The evolution of the flight simulator. Proceedings of conference, 50 years of Flight Simulation ( Vol. 1, pp. 1-23). London: Royal Aeronautical Society.

Alessi S. M. ( 1988). Fidelity in the design of instructional simulations. Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, 15(2), 40-47.

Alluisi E. A. ( 1991). The development of technology for collective training: SIMNET, a case history. Human Factors, 33, 343-362.

Bailey J., Hughes R., & Jones W. ( 1980). Application of backward chaining to air to surface weapons delivery training (AFHRL Tech. Rep. No. 79-63). Brooks Air Force Base, TX: Air Force Human Resources Laboratory.

Baudhuin E. S. ( 1987). The design of industrial and flight simulators. In S. M. Cormier & J. D. Hagman (Eds.), Transfer of learning (pp. 217-237). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Benton C. J., Corriveau P., Koonce J. M., & Tirre W. C. ( 1992). Development of the basic flight instruction tutoring system (BFITS) (Vol. AL-TP-1991-0060). Brooks Air Force Base, TX: Air Force Systems Command.

Beringer D. B. ( 1994). Issues in using off-the-shelf PC-based flight simulation for research and training: Historical perspective, current solutions and emerging technologies. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 38th Annual Meeting, 1994 (pp. 90-94). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Boldovici J. A. ( 1987). Measuring transfer in military settings. In S. M. Cormier & J. D. Hagman (Eds.), Transfer of learning (pp. 239-260). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Boldovici J. A. ( 1992). Simulator motion (TR 961, AD A257 683). Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army Research Institute.

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Handbook of Aviation Human Factors
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Human Factors in Transportation ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Series Foreword xi
  • Preface xiii
  • I Introduction 1
  • 1: A Historical Overview of Human Factors in Aviation 3
  • References 13
  • 2: Aviation Research and Development: A Framework for the Effective Practice of Human Factors, or "What Your Mentor Never Told You About a Career in Human Factors . . ." 15
  • 3: Measurement in Aviation Systems 33
  • Summary Appraisal 46
  • References 47
  • 4: Underpinnings of System Evaluation 51
  • References 66
  • 5: Organizational Factors Associated With Safety and Mission Success in Aviation Environments 67
  • Conclusion 100
  • Acknowledgments 101
  • References 101
  • II Human Capabilities and Performance 105
  • 6: Processes Underlying Human Performance 107
  • Conclusion 166
  • References 168
  • 7: Automation in Aviation: A Human Factors Perspective 173
  • Conclusion 189
  • Acknowledgments 190
  • References 190
  • 8: Team Processes and Their Training in Aviation 193
  • References 211
  • 9: Crew Resource Management: A Time for Reflection 215
  • Conclusions 230
  • Acknowledgments 232
  • References 232
  • 10: Fatigue and Biological Rhythms 235
  • References 250
  • 11: Situation Awareness in Aviation Systems 257
  • References 274
  • 12: Aviation Personnel Selection and Training 277
  • References 305
  • III Aircraft 309
  • 13: Pilot Performance 311
  • References 323
  • 14: Controls, Displays, and Workplace Design 327
  • Conclusions 352
  • References 353
  • 15: Flight Simulation 355
  • Conclusion 384
  • Acknowledgments 384
  • References 384
  • 16: Human Factors Considerations in Aircraft Cabin Design 389
  • Conclusion 403
  • References 403
  • 17: Helicopter Human Factors 405
  • Summary 423
  • References 428
  • IV Air Traffic Control 429
  • 18: Air Traffic Control 431
  • Suggested Reading 454
  • 19: Air Traffic Controller Memory: Capabilities, Limitations, and Volatility 455
  • References 488
  • 20: Air Traffic Control Automation 497
  • References 515
  • 21: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control/Flight Deck Integration: Implications of Data-Link Simulation Research 519
  • References 544
  • V Aviation Operations And Design 547
  • 22: Human Factors of Functionality and Intelligent Avionics 549
  • Conclusion 563
  • References 564
  • 23: Weather Information Presentation 567
  • References 588
  • 24: Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance 591
  • References 603
  • 25: Human Factors in U.S. Civil Aviation Security 607
  • Epilogue 630
  • References 630
  • 26: Aviation Incident and Accident Investigation 631
  • Conclusion 640
  • References 641
  • 27: Forensic Aviation Human Factors [Accident/Incident Analyses for Legal Proceedings] 643
  • Introduction 644
  • References 668
  • Author Index 669
  • Subject Index 685
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