Handbook of Aviation Human Factors

By Daniel J. Garland; John A. Wise et al. | Go to book overview

As flights become longer and technology becomes more sophisticated, the quantity and variety of passenger activities, such as eating, drinking, sleeping, exercising, movie viewing, electronic shopping and gaming, and conducting business, will increase. What will be the physical and cognitive effects of these activities on the well-being of this "captive audience"?

Future changes should be made to the aviation human factors discipline in general. There is a need for an increase in the extent and accuracy of physical and statistical computer human-modeling tools. Current methods of modeling human figures within electronic mockups of aircraft parts and interiors are still relatively crude for accurate analysis. As for user data, state-of-the-art methods do not yet bridge gaps in user data for various populations. There still may be data gaps between designers and users. There is a wealth of information available, not only from passengers but also from crew members, maintenance personnel, and assembly mechanics, that goes virtually untapped, even at world-class aircraft manufacturing companies. There is currently no method or tool for bridging language or cultural barriers. And, finally, improvements are necessary in the aviation industry to ensure that human factors engineering methods are applied to cabin interior products and systems early in the design process.

Currently, only a limited number of procurement contracts require human factors involvement and signoff in the design activity. If this practice were to be made standard, it would help to make the human factors discipline a useful resource across all areas. Increased use of human factors methods should bring increased evidence of their benefits.


CONCLUSION

The engineering profession is making exponential technology advances in many directions. Human factors specialists today must be very diligent about trying to match these new advanced technologies to users. The temptation to focus only on technology in the spirit of advancement is great. It is the responsibility of the human factors specialists to keep aircraft--or any technology--from growing beyond the capabilities and limitations of its users. The solution is for human factors professionals to work together with design engineers to develop and apply new technologies that incorporate the human as a system component. Developing measurable and defensible user requirements is the key to making this happen.


REFERENCES

Brauer K. ( 1996). Seating configuration and passenger comfort. Seattle: The Boeing Company.

Condit P. ( 1997). Broadcast interview, MacNeil/Lehrer Report.

Edwards M., & Edwards E. ( 1990). The aircraft cabin: Managing the human factors. Hants, England: Gower.

Muir H., Marrison C., & Evans A. ( 1989). Aircraft evacuations: The effect of passenger motivation and cabin configuration adjacent to the exit (Civil Aviation Authority Paper No. 89019). London, England: Civil Aviation Authority.

Rouse W. B. ( 1991). Design for success. New York: Wiley.

Serling R J. ( 1992). Legend & legacy: The story of Boeing and its people. New York: St. Martin's Press.

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Handbook of Aviation Human Factors
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Human Factors in Transportation ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Series Foreword xi
  • Preface xiii
  • I Introduction 1
  • 1: A Historical Overview of Human Factors in Aviation 3
  • References 13
  • 2: Aviation Research and Development: A Framework for the Effective Practice of Human Factors, or "What Your Mentor Never Told You About a Career in Human Factors . . ." 15
  • 3: Measurement in Aviation Systems 33
  • Summary Appraisal 46
  • References 47
  • 4: Underpinnings of System Evaluation 51
  • References 66
  • 5: Organizational Factors Associated With Safety and Mission Success in Aviation Environments 67
  • Conclusion 100
  • Acknowledgments 101
  • References 101
  • II Human Capabilities and Performance 105
  • 6: Processes Underlying Human Performance 107
  • Conclusion 166
  • References 168
  • 7: Automation in Aviation: A Human Factors Perspective 173
  • Conclusion 189
  • Acknowledgments 190
  • References 190
  • 8: Team Processes and Their Training in Aviation 193
  • References 211
  • 9: Crew Resource Management: A Time for Reflection 215
  • Conclusions 230
  • Acknowledgments 232
  • References 232
  • 10: Fatigue and Biological Rhythms 235
  • References 250
  • 11: Situation Awareness in Aviation Systems 257
  • References 274
  • 12: Aviation Personnel Selection and Training 277
  • References 305
  • III Aircraft 309
  • 13: Pilot Performance 311
  • References 323
  • 14: Controls, Displays, and Workplace Design 327
  • Conclusions 352
  • References 353
  • 15: Flight Simulation 355
  • Conclusion 384
  • Acknowledgments 384
  • References 384
  • 16: Human Factors Considerations in Aircraft Cabin Design 389
  • Conclusion 403
  • References 403
  • 17: Helicopter Human Factors 405
  • Summary 423
  • References 428
  • IV Air Traffic Control 429
  • 18: Air Traffic Control 431
  • Suggested Reading 454
  • 19: Air Traffic Controller Memory: Capabilities, Limitations, and Volatility 455
  • References 488
  • 20: Air Traffic Control Automation 497
  • References 515
  • 21: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control/Flight Deck Integration: Implications of Data-Link Simulation Research 519
  • References 544
  • V Aviation Operations And Design 547
  • 22: Human Factors of Functionality and Intelligent Avionics 549
  • Conclusion 563
  • References 564
  • 23: Weather Information Presentation 567
  • References 588
  • 24: Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance 591
  • References 603
  • 25: Human Factors in U.S. Civil Aviation Security 607
  • Epilogue 630
  • References 630
  • 26: Aviation Incident and Accident Investigation 631
  • Conclusion 640
  • References 641
  • 27: Forensic Aviation Human Factors [Accident/Incident Analyses for Legal Proceedings] 643
  • Introduction 644
  • References 668
  • Author Index 669
  • Subject Index 685
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