Handbook of Aviation Human Factors

By Daniel J. Garland; John A. Wise et al. | Go to book overview

17
Helicopter Human Factors

Bruce E. Hamilton Johnson Engineering Corporation

Helicopters are just like fixed-wing aircraft except that helicopters are different. The differences are not in the men and women who fly helicopters, for they can be, and sometimes are, the same men and women who fly fixed-wing aircraft. Their abilities and limitations are the same regardless of the kind of aircraft they fly. Helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft differ in how the crew makes flight control inputs, the information required to decide what control movements are necessary, and the missions assigned to the crew. There are many areas of similarity, such as in navigation, communication, subsystem management, monitoring vehicle status, coordination between crew members, and interaction between the helicopter and other aircraft. Helicopters and fixed- wing aircraft follow, for the most part, the same flight rules and procedures. Minor differences exist in the flight rules, mostly about minimum visual ranges and decision heights. Although rotary- and fixed-wing flight is mostly the same, the differences are important and often overshadow the similarities.

One difference is in how helicopters fly. Fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft all obey the same laws of physics and use the same principle of differential pressure caused by air flowing across and under a shaped surface to generate lift. The difference is that the rotary wing, as the name implies, rotates the wing about a mast to generate airflow while the fixed wing moves forward through the air. The difference in method of generating lift accounts for the helicopter's ability to hover and move at slow speeds in any direction. Figure 17.1 illustrates the method by which the helicopter balances opposing forces in order to fly. In short, the rotating blades (rotor disk) generate lift. Tilting the rotor disk provides thrust, with the resultant vector a function of how much lift (pitch of the blades) and thrust (degree of tilt) are commanded. This resultant vector counters the force of gravity acting on the mass of the helicopter and payload, and the drag of the fuselage as it moves through the air. Increasing the pitch of the blades (more lift) without tilting the rotor disk (thrust constant) causes the helicopter to rise, whereas increasing pitch and tilting the disk causes movement in the direction of the tilt. When hovering, the resulting vector is vertical (without thrust) to balance the force

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Handbook of Aviation Human Factors
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Human Factors in Transportation ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Series Foreword xi
  • Preface xiii
  • I Introduction 1
  • 1: A Historical Overview of Human Factors in Aviation 3
  • References 13
  • 2: Aviation Research and Development: A Framework for the Effective Practice of Human Factors, or "What Your Mentor Never Told You About a Career in Human Factors . . ." 15
  • 3: Measurement in Aviation Systems 33
  • Summary Appraisal 46
  • References 47
  • 4: Underpinnings of System Evaluation 51
  • References 66
  • 5: Organizational Factors Associated With Safety and Mission Success in Aviation Environments 67
  • Conclusion 100
  • Acknowledgments 101
  • References 101
  • II Human Capabilities and Performance 105
  • 6: Processes Underlying Human Performance 107
  • Conclusion 166
  • References 168
  • 7: Automation in Aviation: A Human Factors Perspective 173
  • Conclusion 189
  • Acknowledgments 190
  • References 190
  • 8: Team Processes and Their Training in Aviation 193
  • References 211
  • 9: Crew Resource Management: A Time for Reflection 215
  • Conclusions 230
  • Acknowledgments 232
  • References 232
  • 10: Fatigue and Biological Rhythms 235
  • References 250
  • 11: Situation Awareness in Aviation Systems 257
  • References 274
  • 12: Aviation Personnel Selection and Training 277
  • References 305
  • III Aircraft 309
  • 13: Pilot Performance 311
  • References 323
  • 14: Controls, Displays, and Workplace Design 327
  • Conclusions 352
  • References 353
  • 15: Flight Simulation 355
  • Conclusion 384
  • Acknowledgments 384
  • References 384
  • 16: Human Factors Considerations in Aircraft Cabin Design 389
  • Conclusion 403
  • References 403
  • 17: Helicopter Human Factors 405
  • Summary 423
  • References 428
  • IV Air Traffic Control 429
  • 18: Air Traffic Control 431
  • Suggested Reading 454
  • 19: Air Traffic Controller Memory: Capabilities, Limitations, and Volatility 455
  • References 488
  • 20: Air Traffic Control Automation 497
  • References 515
  • 21: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control/Flight Deck Integration: Implications of Data-Link Simulation Research 519
  • References 544
  • V Aviation Operations And Design 547
  • 22: Human Factors of Functionality and Intelligent Avionics 549
  • Conclusion 563
  • References 564
  • 23: Weather Information Presentation 567
  • References 588
  • 24: Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance 591
  • References 603
  • 25: Human Factors in U.S. Civil Aviation Security 607
  • Epilogue 630
  • References 630
  • 26: Aviation Incident and Accident Investigation 631
  • Conclusion 640
  • References 641
  • 27: Forensic Aviation Human Factors [Accident/Incident Analyses for Legal Proceedings] 643
  • Introduction 644
  • References 668
  • Author Index 669
  • Subject Index 685
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