tions will depend on the coordinated use of automation, procedures, and communications to better balance controller and pilot workload.
As user participation increases and air and ground system elements focus more on solving a common problem, the separate air and ground systems will begin to more closely resemble each other ( Wiener, 1988). Closer resemblance between systems will mean that the cognitive and information-processing demands on controller and pilot and their awareness of the situation will depend entirely on the ability to obtain, interpret, and assimilate information provided by displays ( Houck, cited in Flach, 1994). Although the definitions of comprehensive and coherent situation representations for controllers and pilots may never be identical, it is reasonable to assert that there will be greater commonality in terms of the types of information represented and the most efficient formats.
Research on information transfer failures ( Billings & Cheaney, 1981) and the importance of party-line information ( Pritchett & Hansman, 1994) reveals that the current voice delivery mechanism is both unreliable and inefficient. The research further shows that in terms of the mental effort and attention required to access and recode information into a usable representation of the situation, digital transfers of traffic, route, and weather information promise to improve both controller and pilot situation awareness.
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