Handbook of Aviation Human Factors

By Daniel J. Garland; John A. Wise et al. | Go to book overview

Finally, error monitoring should not depend on whether functions are enabled in traditional avionics.


Consequences Are an Important Structural Orientation

To consider GPWS again, its processing has no concept of consequences. Of course, the designers knew that flight below a certain altitude could have most severe consequences. However, none of that consequential reasoning is present in the GPWS unit itself. It merely compares the radar altitude to the threshold and sets off an alarm if the threshold is transgressed. As a result, GPWS can be considered to cause many false alarms, at least when evaluating the true state of the aircraft with respect to the distance to the ground. In other words, if the aircraft continues on its current trajectory, how far is it from the edge of the cocoon? The GPWS has no representation about cocoon borders.

The point is that a situation is a hazard only if the potential consequences are severe. Evaluating errors requires a structural orientation toward consequences within the monitor. Other approaches that have been tried include omission of prescribed actions and human error theory. Experience with the omission of actions is that the severity of the error is usually unknown without other information about consequences. Human error theory can suggest what might be done about repairing the error (e.g., omission or repetition errors are somewhat self-diagnosing) or explain why it happened. Understanding the cause for an error may be useful for the designer or the pilot (in a debrief), but it serves little purpose in alerting the pilot to a serious error ( Greenberg, Small, Zenyuh, & Skidmore, 1995).


CONCLUSION

A high-level architecture for an intelligent interface has been described. The description represents a family of solutions, not an individual solution. The model structures described provide a sufficient framework for dealing with the problems of automation. One key property of the intelligent interface is that it increases the level of intelligence in the avionics to correspond more nearly with the authority already granted. Historically, the intelligent interface represents the next generation of automation that is built on the current layers of flight management systems and autopilots. The purpose of the intelligent interface is to support the pilot's decision making. This differs from the purpose of traditional automation, which is to automate tasks for the pilot.

System engineering becomes an essential effort for any system constructed with an intelligent interface. To build an intelligent interface component requires a thorough understanding of the purpose, benefits, and employment of each subsystem component to be installed on the aircraft. This understanding is a necessary part of the system engineering because knowledge engineering about the subsystem is necessary. The questions asked include:

What are the effects of using the subsystem in each of its modes on the aircraft and environment? This is aimed at producing a device level model of the subsystem.

When is it appropriate to use the subsystem?

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Handbook of Aviation Human Factors
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Human Factors in Transportation ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Series Foreword xi
  • Preface xiii
  • I Introduction 1
  • 1: A Historical Overview of Human Factors in Aviation 3
  • References 13
  • 2: Aviation Research and Development: A Framework for the Effective Practice of Human Factors, or "What Your Mentor Never Told You About a Career in Human Factors . . ." 15
  • 3: Measurement in Aviation Systems 33
  • Summary Appraisal 46
  • References 47
  • 4: Underpinnings of System Evaluation 51
  • References 66
  • 5: Organizational Factors Associated With Safety and Mission Success in Aviation Environments 67
  • Conclusion 100
  • Acknowledgments 101
  • References 101
  • II Human Capabilities and Performance 105
  • 6: Processes Underlying Human Performance 107
  • Conclusion 166
  • References 168
  • 7: Automation in Aviation: A Human Factors Perspective 173
  • Conclusion 189
  • Acknowledgments 190
  • References 190
  • 8: Team Processes and Their Training in Aviation 193
  • References 211
  • 9: Crew Resource Management: A Time for Reflection 215
  • Conclusions 230
  • Acknowledgments 232
  • References 232
  • 10: Fatigue and Biological Rhythms 235
  • References 250
  • 11: Situation Awareness in Aviation Systems 257
  • References 274
  • 12: Aviation Personnel Selection and Training 277
  • References 305
  • III Aircraft 309
  • 13: Pilot Performance 311
  • References 323
  • 14: Controls, Displays, and Workplace Design 327
  • Conclusions 352
  • References 353
  • 15: Flight Simulation 355
  • Conclusion 384
  • Acknowledgments 384
  • References 384
  • 16: Human Factors Considerations in Aircraft Cabin Design 389
  • Conclusion 403
  • References 403
  • 17: Helicopter Human Factors 405
  • Summary 423
  • References 428
  • IV Air Traffic Control 429
  • 18: Air Traffic Control 431
  • Suggested Reading 454
  • 19: Air Traffic Controller Memory: Capabilities, Limitations, and Volatility 455
  • References 488
  • 20: Air Traffic Control Automation 497
  • References 515
  • 21: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control/Flight Deck Integration: Implications of Data-Link Simulation Research 519
  • References 544
  • V Aviation Operations And Design 547
  • 22: Human Factors of Functionality and Intelligent Avionics 549
  • Conclusion 563
  • References 564
  • 23: Weather Information Presentation 567
  • References 588
  • 24: Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance 591
  • References 603
  • 25: Human Factors in U.S. Civil Aviation Security 607
  • Epilogue 630
  • References 630
  • 26: Aviation Incident and Accident Investigation 631
  • Conclusion 640
  • References 641
  • 27: Forensic Aviation Human Factors [Accident/Incident Analyses for Legal Proceedings] 643
  • Introduction 644
  • References 668
  • Author Index 669
  • Subject Index 685
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