Handbook of Aviation Human Factors

By Daniel J. Garland; John A. Wise et al. | Go to book overview

covered with small extensions from other cells. Thus, the redesigned workcards for inspection should be applicable almost in toto to the initiate maintenance function. Similarly the restricted space studies and improved task lighting go beyond inspection.

However, 10 years after the Lock and Strutt study, and 5 years after the FAA's large involvement, we still need more work at both the systems level and with demonstration projects at the function level. We need to move as well from retrofitting existing systems to designing out some of the error-prone situations in new systems. Already new aircraft can be designed with anthropometric models in the CAD (computer-assisted design) system much publicized for the Boeing 747 ( Aviation Week and Space Technology, 1993). Such an intervention should prevent the creation of future restricted space problems. But we also need to be designing human interfaces for new NDI systems, using task analytic techniques for new methods of repairing composites, applying STS design ideas to new contract repair stations, and helping design new computer systems for job control and workcard presentation.

The aviation industry has made itself into an extremely safe transportation system, but more is always demanded. As long as there are people in the system, there will be the potential for those errors that arise from human-system interaction. Human factors has far to go to ensure that the next level of system safety is reached.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author's work reported here was performed under a contract from the Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Aviation Medicine (Dr. W. Shepherd), through Galaxy Scientific Corporation (Dr. W. L. Johnson).


REFERENCES

Allen J., & Marx D. ( 1994, November). Maintenance error decision aid project. Proceedings of the 8th FAA/OAM Meeting on Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance and Inspection: Trends and Advances in Aviation Maintenance Operations, Alexandria, VA, November 16-17, 1993, 101-116.

Aviation Week and Space Technology. ( 1993, November 22). Boeing 777 design targets gate mechanic (p. 60).

Bobo S. ( 1990). Communication and transfer of non-destructive inspection information. Final Report, Second Federal Aviation Administration Meeting on Human Factors Issues in Aircraft Maintenance and Inspection-Information Exchange and Communications, 151-166. Washington, DC: Office of Aviation Medicine.

Drury C. G. ( 1985). Stress and quality control inspection. In C. L. Cooper & M. J. Smith (Eds.), Job stress and blue collar work (Vol. 7, pp. 113-129). Chichester, England: John Wiley.

Drury C. G. ( 1990). The ergonomics audit. In E. J. Lovesey (Ed.), Contemporary Ergonomics (pp. 400-405). London: Taylor & Francis.

Drury C. G. ( 1991, September). Errors in aviation maintenance: taxonomy and control. Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, 1, 42-46.

Drury C. G., & Gramopadhye A. K. ( 1992). Training for visual inspection: Controlled studies and field implications. Proceedings of the Seventh FAA Meeting on Human Factors Issues in Aircraft Maintenance and Inspection, Atlanta, GA, 135-146.

Drury C. G., & Lock M. W. B. ( 1992). Ergonomics in civil aircraft inspection. Contemporary Ergonomics 1992 (pp. 116-123). London: Taylor & Francis.

Drury C. G., Prabhu P. V., & Gramopadhye A. K. ( 1990, October). Task analysis of aircraft inspection activities: methods and findings. Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 34th Annual Meeting, Santa Monica, CA, 1181-1185.

Drury C. G., & Wang M. J. ( 1986). Are research results in inspection tasks specific? Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 30th Annual Meeting, 1, 393-397.

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Handbook of Aviation Human Factors
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Human Factors in Transportation ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Series Foreword xi
  • Preface xiii
  • I Introduction 1
  • 1: A Historical Overview of Human Factors in Aviation 3
  • References 13
  • 2: Aviation Research and Development: A Framework for the Effective Practice of Human Factors, or "What Your Mentor Never Told You About a Career in Human Factors . . ." 15
  • 3: Measurement in Aviation Systems 33
  • Summary Appraisal 46
  • References 47
  • 4: Underpinnings of System Evaluation 51
  • References 66
  • 5: Organizational Factors Associated With Safety and Mission Success in Aviation Environments 67
  • Conclusion 100
  • Acknowledgments 101
  • References 101
  • II Human Capabilities and Performance 105
  • 6: Processes Underlying Human Performance 107
  • Conclusion 166
  • References 168
  • 7: Automation in Aviation: A Human Factors Perspective 173
  • Conclusion 189
  • Acknowledgments 190
  • References 190
  • 8: Team Processes and Their Training in Aviation 193
  • References 211
  • 9: Crew Resource Management: A Time for Reflection 215
  • Conclusions 230
  • Acknowledgments 232
  • References 232
  • 10: Fatigue and Biological Rhythms 235
  • References 250
  • 11: Situation Awareness in Aviation Systems 257
  • References 274
  • 12: Aviation Personnel Selection and Training 277
  • References 305
  • III Aircraft 309
  • 13: Pilot Performance 311
  • References 323
  • 14: Controls, Displays, and Workplace Design 327
  • Conclusions 352
  • References 353
  • 15: Flight Simulation 355
  • Conclusion 384
  • Acknowledgments 384
  • References 384
  • 16: Human Factors Considerations in Aircraft Cabin Design 389
  • Conclusion 403
  • References 403
  • 17: Helicopter Human Factors 405
  • Summary 423
  • References 428
  • IV Air Traffic Control 429
  • 18: Air Traffic Control 431
  • Suggested Reading 454
  • 19: Air Traffic Controller Memory: Capabilities, Limitations, and Volatility 455
  • References 488
  • 20: Air Traffic Control Automation 497
  • References 515
  • 21: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control/Flight Deck Integration: Implications of Data-Link Simulation Research 519
  • References 544
  • V Aviation Operations And Design 547
  • 22: Human Factors of Functionality and Intelligent Avionics 549
  • Conclusion 563
  • References 564
  • 23: Weather Information Presentation 567
  • References 588
  • 24: Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance 591
  • References 603
  • 25: Human Factors in U.S. Civil Aviation Security 607
  • Epilogue 630
  • References 630
  • 26: Aviation Incident and Accident Investigation 631
  • Conclusion 640
  • References 641
  • 27: Forensic Aviation Human Factors [Accident/Incident Analyses for Legal Proceedings] 643
  • Introduction 644
  • References 668
  • Author Index 669
  • Subject Index 685
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