PERSONALITY: MULTIDIMENSIONAL APPROACHES
Each of the tests we discussed in Chap. 6 was designed to yield one score. In this chapter we propose to discuss tests designed to yield several scores. These tests are examples of what we call multidimensional approaches to the measurement of personality. A multidimensional approach may consist in the simultaneous use of several tests of the unidimensional type, or it may consist in the use of the same set of items scored in different ways. And there are, of course, gradations between these extremes.
We shall begin our discussion of multidimensional approaches by describing the Bernreuter Personality Inventory. This test consists of 125 questions to which a subject is asked to answer "Yes," "No," or "?." It was developed by Robert G. Bernreuter and was first published in 1932. It was designed to do the work of four of the tests we discussed in the preceding chapter and, consequently, yields a series of scores serving the same purposes as the scores on these original tests. These scores are supposed to measure neurotic tendency, self-sufficiency, introversion-extroversion, and dominance- submission. Individuals scoring high and low on each of these variables can, according to Bernreuter, be characterized as follows:
High B1 N. The individuals that score high on this scale show a tendency toward a neurotic condition. Such an individual often feels miserable, is sensitive to blame, and is troubled by useless thoughts, by shyness, and by feelings of inferiority.)-. He feels shut off from other people, he frequently daydreams, and worries both over things that have happened and over things that may happen.
Low B1 N. The individual who scores low on the B1 N scale is an emotionally