ADJUSTMENT: PROGNOSTIC APPROACHES
Our discussion in the last chapter centered around diagnostic approaches to the measurement of adjustment. By diagnostic approaches we mean approaches concerned with immediate adjustment and adjustment related to the general mental health of an individual. We want to turn our attention in this chapter to prognostic approaches to the measurement of adjustment. Prognostic approaches are designed to predict adjustment at some future date and, usually, in a defined and specific situation. Thus, we shall discuss adjustment in marriage, adjustment in an individual's occupational calling, and adjustment in military service. We shall be concerned with the prediction of the degree of adjustment in these specific situations before the person has actually entered them. We shall have to concern ourselves also with the measurement of adjustment after the fact, for we need some criterion for the validation of our predictions. Our first two examples of prognostic approaches will be the Burgess and Cottrell, and the Terman, marital- happiness prediction scales. Our third will be the Aptitude Index for predicting success in life insurance selling. And our fourth example will be Shipley and Graham's Personal Inventory for predicting adjustment in military (naval) service.
Burgess and Cottrell were interested in determining the extent to which adjustment in marriage could be predicted from a subject's responses to a variety of background and personal-history items. They constructed an adjustment questionnaire to measure adjustment in marriage and a background and personal history questionnaire from which these predictions were to be made, and then they