Dictionary of World Literature: Criticism, Forms, Technique

By Joseph T. Shipley | Go to book overview

N

Naiv und sentimentalisch. G. Antithesis developed by Schiller in what has been called the greatest G. essay in the field of æstheties, "Über naive und sentimentalische Dichtung" ( 1795), based on Kant and Hemsterhuys. A poet is naiv whose personality is in full harmony with nature (the Greeks, Shakespeare, Goethe), while the sentimentalieche poet ( Schiller himself and most moderns) has lost his immediate contact with nature, yet longs to return to it. Thus, the 'naive' poet is a realist, while the 'sentimental' poet is an idealist: they complement one another.

Schiller's essay is an attempt at self- justification before the majestic serenity of Goethe's work. Later typological undertakings have used other terms: antique vs. romantic or modern, Schlegel: Nietzsche, Dionysian vs. Apollonian, q.v.; Wölfflin, classical vs. baroque; Strich, classical vs. romantic; puritan vs. pagan. W.P.

naiveté.SeePrimitivism.

Na literaturnom postu(.At the literary post). Soviet periodical pub. ( 1926-32) by RAPP, succeeding Na postu ( L. Averbakh, Yu. Libedinski, V. Ermilov, V. Kirshon, A. Fadeev). Its stand toward "fellow-travelers" was uncompromising; they must either become fullfledged comrades, or admit that they were enemies. When Central committee of the All-union communist party decreed ( April 23, 1932) that a reformation of the country's literary organization was necessary, Na litpostu ceased to exist. O.M.

Namnlösa Sällskapet (The Nameless Society, "N.S."). Swe. group of 24 writers of the 1860's, also called Signaturena (The Signers), to exchange views on æsthetic and critical questions. A.B.B.

Na postu(At the post). A group of proproletarian writers, and their periodical ( 1923-25: B. Volin, G. Lelevich, S. Rodov). Against L. Trotski and A. Voronski, Na postu insisted that political considerations should determine literary trends. At a conference ( 1926), L. Averbokh, Yu. Libendinski replaced Na postu with Na literaturnom postu. O.M.

nâtaka. Ind. Th. SeeRûpaka.

NATIONALISM is a concept at once consistent and mixed. Writers, critics, receptors, have desired to see their state or region reflected in literature; to feel a unifying sense of nationality through the stabilization of the native language; to gain an enrichment of native life through its translation into literature. Although both the theory and the practice have been frequently attacked, emphasis on the use of the vernacular and at the same time on the imitation of foreign (especially classical) models has been prevailing.

The 3 typical approaches appear early in Rom. history. The elder Cato distrusted Gr. ideas and learning; he desired to hold Rom. thought securely within the Rom. tradition. At the opposite extreme, Lanuvinus and his friends insisted on an almost literal translation of Gr. plays, attacking Terence for his free handling of Gr. sources. The Scipionic group satirized this practice as turning good Gr. into bad L.; Terence esp. advocated a free adaptation), an assimilation, of the material, and asserted the right of the artist to make use in his own way of any earlier work. At the same time, the Scipionic group stressed a pure Latinity, and derided far-fetched coinages and compounds. With slight variations, the point of view of Terence became that of Cicero, Vergil, Horace, Quintilian.

In the medieval period, the vernacular served as the entering wedge for the concept of nationalism. Through the Renaissance, nationalism was increasingly stressed, despite the tightening classical hold.

In time, this development of nationalism led to a return to native forms, a movement that had gained full headway by 1800. Critics like Lessing and Schiller emphasized the national characteristics of G.; Madame de Staël attempted to isolate the peculiar genius of the G., the Eng., and the Fr. Cosmopolitan knowledge and broad sympathy tempered the nationalistic feeling of these romantic critics, also its extension in Taine's theory of racial and geographical genius.

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Dictionary of World Literature: Criticism, Forms, Technique
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • ADVISERS and CONTRIBUTORS vii
  • SUGGESTIVE LIST OF ASSOCIATED TOPICS xi
  • Abbreviations xiv
  • A 1
  • B 63
  • C 82
  • D 145
  • E 182
  • F 229
  • G 277
  • H 296
  • I 310
  • J 339
  • K 346
  • L 347
  • M 365
  • N 394
  • Q 468
  • S 500
  • T 572
  • U 599
  • W 619
  • Y 631
  • Z 633
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