An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of the Russian and Soviet Empires

By Lee Brigance Pappas; Nicholas C. J. Pappas et al. | Go to book overview

languages of Georgia (Georgian, Migrelo-Laz, Svanetian*), but rather is a northem Caucasian language, belonging to the Abazgo-Cherkess language group with more affinities to the languages of the northwestern Caucasian peoples such as the Abazas*, Cherkesses*, and Kabards*. The Abkhazian language, like the Cherkess language, is known as polysynthetic, due to its unusual feature of having only two vowels and sixty-five consonants in the northern dialect, which became the literary language, and sixty-seven consonants in the southern dialect. It is interesting to compare these features with those of the neighboring Svanetians, whose language has eighteen vowel sounds. Prior to the Russian annexation, there was no written Abkhazian language; Georgian was widely used by the Christians and some of the Muslims, while Arabic, Turkish, and Persian* were used by others among the Muslims. Abkhazian was developed into a literary language, first using the Cyrillic alphabet, in the mid-nineteenth century by a team consisting of a Russian general who was a specialist on Caucasian languages, two Abkhazian officers in the Russian service, and an Abkhazian Orthodox priest. The first works of Abkhaziar, literature were published by Christian Abkhazians like Dimitri Gulia, G. D. Gulia, and others. Between 1918 and 1938, Cyrillic was replaced by a Latin script, which was in turn supplanted by a Georgian alphabet between 1938 and 1954; the Georgian script was abandoned for a new Cyrillic alphabet after the death of Josef Stalin in 1954. The Cyrillic written language continues to this day. Literary Abkhazian, however, is mostly used only up through the secondary schools, while Georgian and Russian are used more widely in upper-level education. Russian and Georgian language publications have a much wider circulation. In addition, more radio and television broadcasts are presented in the latter two languages.

The Abkhazians have a history that goes back to ancient times. It is perhaps from the Abkhazian folk hero Abrskil that the ancient Greeks received the myth of Prometheus, who brought fire to humanity and was punished by the gods by being tied to the Caucasus Mountains and perennially gnawed at by eagles. The Greeks who founded the Black Sea colonies of Dioskourias (later Sebastopolis and Sukhumi) and Pitiuntas (later Bichvinta) came into contact with a warlike, piratical people they knew as the Heniochi. Some scholars have asserted that the Heniochi were the progenitors of the Abkhazians, who also practiced piracy in early modern times. A number of ancient authors in the Roman era--notably Arrian, Pliny, and Strabo--mentioned a people inhabiting the coastal region of the northeastern Black Sea who were known as the Abasgoi in Greek and the Abasgi in Latin. According to the sixth-century Byzantine historian Procopius, the Abasgoi in his time were under the suzerainty of the Kingdom of Lazica. In his History of the Wars, Procopius also described the Abasgoi as warlike and as worshipers of tree dieties. He also claimed that the Abasgoi (Abkhazians) provided eunuchs for the Byzantine court in Constantinople. The Abkhazians, along with Lazic Kingdom, became clients of the Byzantine Empire in the sixth century under the emperor Justinian. With this came the further Christianization of the Abkhazians. The Christian Church already had outposts in the former

-6-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of the Russian and Soviet Empires
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • A 1
  • B 77
  • C 131
  • D 195
  • E 207
  • F 231
  • G 237
  • H 281
  • I 287
  • J 303
  • K 329
  • L 425
  • M 453
  • O 517
  • P 527
  • Q 541
  • R 549
  • S 579
  • T 609
  • U 663
  • V 719
  • W 729
  • Y 731
  • Z 745
  • Appendix A - Major Ethnic Groups of the Soviet Union by Republic, 1990 751
  • Appendix B - Ethnic Populations of the Soviet Union, 1926-1989 753
  • Appendix C - A Brief History of Islam, with Special Reference to Russia and the Soviet Union 758
  • Appendix D - A Chronology of the Russian and Soviet Empires 767
  • Appendix E - Major Political Subdivisions of the Soviet Union In 1990 782
  • Appendix F - Nationality, Language Loyalty, and Religion in the Soviet Union, 1989 785
  • Appendix G - Soviet Residence Patterns by Major Nationality Group, 1989 790
  • Appendix H - Ethnic Composition of the Autonomous Units of the Soviet Union in 1991 797
  • Selected Bibliography of Titles in English 799
  • Index 817
  • About the Editors and Contributors 839
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 842

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.