Sports Economics: Current Research

By John Fizel; Elizabeth Gustafson et al. | Go to book overview

(but in an interesting way in the AL). As the opportunity cost of time falls, chances of attendance increase (Friday and weekends). Chances of attendance rise with population; apparently, scale effects outweigh the larger substitution variety in larger cities. Baseball attendance is an inferior good in the AL ( Noll, 1974, found this, as well) but not in the NL. In fact, for the NL attendance is a normal good in 1990. Whether or not play against a division opponent effects attendance chances appears to depend on the season. People usually like to see home teams that are winners and visiting teams that are less successful. The evidence on games between evenly matched teams is mixed, but a game against a more evenly matched division opponent decreases the chances of attendance (an unexpected outcome). Fans do not like old stadiums. Playing at home in the east increases chances of attendance. Attendance chances are inelastic with respect to stadium capacity. Attendance usually picks up as the season progresses. There is evidence for one year that double-headers increase the chance of attendance. Finally, some teams definitely are a visiting draw ( Boston and Oakland, compared to Toronto, in the AL, and Chicago, Cincinnati, Los Angeles, New York, Pittsburgh, and San Francisco, relative to Atlanta, in the NL).

The punch-line for this chapter concerns the impacts that streaks have upon attendance chances. Winning streaks for both the home and visiting teams, when they matter, almost always increase the chance of attendance. The only exception is in the NL, 1989, where home winning streaks do not matter but visiting team win streaks lower attendance. Losing streaks do not matter as often as winning streaks, but there is evidence that they decrease the chance of attendance regardless of whether the home or visiting team has hit the skids.

These results imply that streak management is valuable. Fans are more (less) likely to attend when their team is on a roll (has hit the skids) and gate revenues can be increased through effective streak management. The goal is clear. Win in streaks at home. If losing streaks occur, see to it that they occur while your team is on the road and try to end any losing streak at home.

In addition to the resource misallocation that follows when streaks are too long for streak managers of poor teams (found in the previous section), we speculate that the misallocation during the season may be even worse. The setting seems ripe for a lemons problem. First, it is difficult to determine whether or not a manager is a streak manager just by observing their behavior. Second, especially since even some streak managers run streaks too long for poor teams, it is easy for any other manager to claim responsibility for streaks that do occur and blame the cruel world of "bad breaks" for any unhappy outcomes. This seems especially problematic in pro sports, where every contest is "a game of inches" and wins and losses can turn on twists of fate. To the extent that streaks pay and no market mechanism protects owners, we suspect that any manager can claim to be a streak manager and misallocate talent on their team during the season.


CONCLUSIONS

In MLB, by and large, streaks are random, but some managers appear to be "streak managers." While we have not established how or why a given manager is a streak

-128-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Sports Economics: Current Research
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 252

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.