Primary Health Care: Towards Equity
The Alma Ata Declaration of 1978 heralded fresh thinking towards health and health services, with major emphasis on primary health care ( PHC). The issue of primary health care was widely debated, and both positive and negative viewpoints were expressed. The chapters that comprise this part present several issues related to community participation in health programmes, minimum primary health care intervention for child survival, and the primary health care programme as a means of achieving integration between health services and welfare activities.
In Chapter 1 Ian D. Askew discusses how planners frequently use the term community participation but seldom apply it when it comes to implementation. The chapter focuses on the scope of community involvement and the bureaucratic way of implementing community participation projects and related problems. Specific suggestions are made to reorient the programme of community participation in health care programmes.
In the second chapter Oscar Gish illustrates the background and assumptions inherent to the idea of minimum primary health care intervention for child survival. Gish also proposes some areas for study based on their potential/importance to child health and survival. Proposals are made for setting up research agenda for PHC programmes in Mexico.
In a case study of the Philippines, David Phillips traces the historical background of health care systems and the present administrative structure in relation to the health care hierarchy by the late 1970s. The extension of primary health care was rapidly accelerated after the 1981 Declaration, with a target of mobilizing all the small local government units for primary health