Homelessness in the United States--Data and Issues

By Jamshid A. Momeni | Go to book overview
Programs within the Jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means, 1988 Edition, Committee Print 100-29, 100th Congress, 2d Session, March 24, 1988. Table 1, Appendix I, p. 711. Tripling $137 per person for a three-person household yields a monthly income of 54 percent of the poverty level for a family of three.
8.
NCHS, 1987b, Series 10, #164 for 1986 national data from the National Health Interview Survey, adults aged 18-64; NCHS, 1987a, "Health United States 1986, " Table 39 for low-income population data from the 1985 National Health Interview Survey covering all persons 4-86+. We used the 18-64 U.S. adult population as the appropriate comparison because 98 percent of our service-using homeless sample were in this age range. Unfortunately, simultaneous breaks by age and income level were not available, so the low-income statistics reflect responses of individuals aged 4-86+
9.
As discussed in Burt and Cohen, 1988b.
10.
Unpublished data obtained from the National Institute of Mental Health were used to make these comparisons. Data supplied by Eve Moscicki, NIMH, Center for Epidemiological Studies, personal communication, 1987, citing a background paper for the Secretary's Task Force on Youth Suicide. Data come from Epidemiological Catchment Area (ECA) studies in five major cities, generalized to the U.S. population as a whole.
11.
The CES-D ( Radloff, 1977) is a scale developed by the Center for Epidemiological Studies (CES) of NIMH to measure depression (hence, CES-D). The original version used on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey has 20 items. The Chicago study ( Rossi et al., 1986) followed a New York Psychiatric Institute practice and used six of the items selected to measure both depression and demoralization. We used these same six items in the present study, and followed Rossi et al.'s methodology to adjust the results into a score equivalent to the 20-item CES-D. The six items, which used a three-point scale of "never. . . . . some of the time," and "most of the time," were:
Was your appetite so poor that you did not feel like eating?
Did you feel so tired and worn out that you could not enjoy anything?
Did you feel depressed?
Did you feel unhappy about the way your life is going?
Did you feel discouraged and worried about your future?
Did you feel lonely?
12.
See Cohen and Burt's chapter in this volume for further discussion of eating patterns and the factors that affect them among the homeless.
13.
No national comparison statistics are available to indicate the proportion of the adult U.S. population who have experienced at least one imprisonment in a state or federal facility in their lifetime. National Criminal Justice Reference Service, personal communication.

REFERENCES

Burt Martha R., and Barbara E. Cohen. 1988a. Feeding the Homeless: Does the Prepared Meals Provision Work? Volume I: Report to Congress; Volume II: Supporting Tables and Documentation. Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute.

-----. 1988b. Review of Research on Homeless Persons. Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute.

Chaiklin Harris, and M. Lipton. 1984. Family Status and Soup Kitchen Use: Some PolicyConsiderations

-36-

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Homelessness in the United States--Data and Issues
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Figure and Tables ix
  • Foreword xi
  • Preface xiii
  • Acknowledgments xv
  • Introduction xvii
  • 1: Counting the Homeless 1
  • Conclusion 13
  • References 15
  • 2: A Sociodemographic Profile of the Service-Using Homeless: Findings from a National Survey 17
  • References 36
  • 3: Food Sources and Intake of Homeless Persons 39
  • References 60
  • 4: Drug Abuse among Homeless People 61
  • References 76
  • 5: Homelessness as a Long-Term Housing Problem in America 81
  • References 90
  • 6: A Social-Psychiatric Perspective on Homelessness: Results from a Pittsburgh Study 95
  • Conclusions 107
  • References 108
  • References 108
  • References 108
  • 7: Sweat and Blood: Sources of Income on a Southern Skid Row 111
  • References 121
  • 8: Homeless Children and Their Caretakers 123
  • References 132
  • 9: Programs Dealing with Homelessness in the United States, Canada, and Britain 133
  • Conclusions 150
  • Acknowledgments 151
  • References 151
  • 10: Public Policies for Reducing Homelessness in America 153
  • Conclusion 163
  • Note 163
  • References 163
  • 11: No Place to Go: A National Picture of Homelessness in America 165
  • References 182
  • Select Bibliography 185
  • Index 191
  • About the Contributors 195
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