Construction Versus Choice in Cognitive Measurement: Issues in Constructed Response, Performance Testing, and Portfolio Assessment

By Randy Elliot Bennett; William C. Ward | Go to book overview

is based on examinee responses to a separate and distinct writing task, with these responses scored independently of the responses to other writing tasks. Finally, researchers should be on the alert for variables that might differentiate M-C from C-R performance. For example, test-taking skills apparently have not been considered heretofore in format-effects research, yet these skills are thought to influence performance on M-C tests ( Millman, Bishop, & Ebel, 1965). Other variables that bear consideration are described elsewhere in this volume (see, e.g., the chapter by Snow). The inclusion of measures hypothesized a priori to be associated with format factors can be expected to enhance the interpretability of the results of trait-equivalence studies.


ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I acknowledge with gratitude the comments that T. A. Ackerman, H. van den Bergh, and especially R. E. Bennett and W. C. Ward provided on earlier drafts of this chapter, but none of these individuals is responsible for any of the errors that may remain.


REFERENCES

Ackerman T. A., & Smith P. L. ( 1988). "A comparison of the information provided by essay, multiple-choice, and free-response writing tests". Applied Psychological Measurement, 12(2), 117-128.

Bennett R. E., Rock D. A., Braun H. I., Frye D., Spohrer J. C., & Soloway E. ( 1990). "The relationship of constrained free-response to multiple-choice and open-ended items". Applied Psychological Measurement, 14(2), 151-162.

Bennett R. E., Rock D. A., & Wang M. ( 1991). "Equivalence of free-response and multiple-choice items". Journal of Educational Measurement, 28( 1), 77-92.

Bennett R. E., Ward W. C., Rock D. A., & LaHart C. ( 1990). Toward a framework for constructed- response items (RR-90-7). Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

Breland H. M. ( 1977). A study of college English placement and the Test of Standard Written English (College Entrance Examination Board Research and Development Report RDR-76-77, No. 4). Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

Breland H. M., & Gaynor J. L. ( 1979). "A comparison of direct and indirect assessments of writing skill". Journal of Educational Measurement, 16( 2), 119-128.

Capell F. J., & Quellmalz E. S. ( 1980). Empirical validation studies of alternate response modes for writing assessment (CSE Report No. 145). Los Angeles, CA: Center for the Study of Evaluation, University of California at Los Angeles.

Guilford J. P. ( 1971). The nature of human intelligence. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Guilford J. P., & Hoepfner R. ( 1971). The analysis of intelligence. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Hayes J. R., & Flower L. S. ( 1980). "Identifying the organization of writing processes". In E. W. Gregg & E. R. Steinberg (Eds.), Cognitive processes in writing (pp. 3-30). Hillside, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hogan T. P. ( 198 1). "Relationship between free-response and choice-type tests of achievement". A review of the literature. Green Bay, WI: University of Wisconsin. (Eric Document Reproduction Service No. ED 224 811)

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