Construction Versus Choice in Cognitive Measurement: Issues in Constructed Response, Performance Testing, and Portfolio Assessment

By Randy Elliot Bennett; William C. Ward | Go to book overview
2. To do this, we badly need to build up a functional psychology of test design.
3. The task involves issues of cognitive process and structure but also conative and affective process and structure; we cannot ignore student personality, attitude, and belief in construct validation.
4. We must not abide arguments based on face validity or political band- wagons; constructed-response testing in one or another form may turn out to be an extremely important development in educational assessment (especially as it is wedded to advances in technology) but there are many test design questions that require careful research. Taking wrong turns at any of several points could make a monster, that is, constructed-response test designs that are worse than multiple-choice tests in their effects on today's educational problems.
5. Among the problems that need research in relation to constructed- response test design are: correlations with student attitude, anxiety, motivation, ability, and socioeconomic status; influences on instruction and learning; the kinds of knowledge structures assessed; the kinds of mental processes prompted during test performance; and a host of psychometric issues centering on scales of measurement, reliability, representativeness, and bias.

REFERENCES

Bennett R. E., Ward W. C., Rock D. A., & LaHart C. ( 1990). Toward a framework for constructedresponse items (ETS RR 90-7). Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

Bethell-Fox C. E., Lohman D. F., & Snow R. E. ( 1984). "Adaptive reasoning: Componential and eye movement analysis of geometric analogy performance". Intelligence, 8, 205-238.

Campbell D. T. ( 1957). "Factors relevant to the validity of experiments in social settings". Psychological Bulletin, 54, 297-312.

Carroll J. B. ( 1976). "Psychometric tests as cognitive tasks: A new structure of intellect." In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp. 27-56). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Crocker L., & Schmitt A. ( 1987). "Improving multiple-choice test performance for examinees with different levels of test anxiety". Journal of Experimental Education, 55, 201-205.

Cronbach L. J. ( 1971). "Test validation". In R. L. Thorndike (Ed.), Educational measurement ( 2nd ed., pp. 443-507). Washington, DC: American Council on Education.

Cronbach L. J. ( 1988). "Five perspectives on validity argument". In H. Wainer & H. I. Braun (Eds.), Test validity (pp. 3-17). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Cronbach L. J., & Snow R. E. ( 1977). Aptitudes and instructional methods. A handbook for research on interactions. New York: Irvington.

d'Ydewalle G. ( 1984). "Motivational and information processing". Psychological Reports. Belgium: University of Leuven.

d'Ydewalle G., Swerts A., & DeCorte E. ( 1983). "Study time and test performance as a function of test expectations". Contemporary Educational Psychology, 8, 55-67.

di B. Finetti ( 1967). "Methods for discriminating partial knowledge concerning a test item". British Journal of Statistical Psychology, 18, 87-123.

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