Construction Versus Choice in Cognitive Measurement: Issues in Constructed Response, Performance Testing, and Portfolio Assessment

By Randy Elliot Bennett; William C. Ward | Go to book overview

construct representation itself. These will derive substantially from the fact that student engaged time is not unlimited.

My closing point is essentially an enthusiastic commendation of Snow's (this volume) initiative in converting the claims and counterclaims advanced in the public and political debate about educational measurement into plausible rival hypotheses to be subjected to scientific inquiry. These claims are part of, the rhetoric of debate on both sides, which more often than not is a "pejorative use of rhetoric that attempts to be persuasive by using evidence selectively and appealing explicitly to biases and stereotypes" ( Cherryholmes, 1988, p. 425). Snow's proposal recasts the stereotypes about test formats into testable hypotheses responsive to scientific evidence. If implemented even partially, the required research might help to elevate the debate to the level of rhetoric exemplified in strong construct validation, that is, to the level of persuasive data- and theory-based argument.


REFERENCES

Bennett R. E., Ward W. C., Rock D. A., & LaHart C. ( 1990). Toward a framework for constructed- response items (ETS-RR 90-7). Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

Campbell D. T. ( 1960). "Recommendations for APA test standards regarding construct, trait, or discriminant validity". American Psychologist, 15, 546-553.

Campbell D. T., & Fiske D. W. ( 1959). "Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix". Psychological Bulletin, 56, 81-105.

Cattell R. B. ( 1968). "Trait-view theory of perturbations in ratings and self ratings (L(BR)- and Q-data): Its application to obtaining pure trait score estimates in questionnaires". Psychological Review, 75, 96-113.

Cattell R. B. ( 1977). "A more sophisticated look at structure: Perturbation, sampling, role, and observer trait-view theories". In R. B. Cattell & R. M. Dreger (Eds.), Handbook of modern personality theory (pp. 166-220). New York: Wiley.

Cherryholmes C. H. ( 1988). "Construct validity and discourses of research". American Journal of Education, 96, 421-457.

Cronbach L. J. ( 1988). "Construct validation after thirty years". In R. L. Linn (Ed.), Intelligence: Measurement theory and public policy--Proceedings of a symposium in honor of Lloyd G. Humphreys (pp. 147-171). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Denham C., & Lieberman A. (Eds.). ( 1980). Time to learn. Washington, DC: National Institute of Education.

Derrida J. ( 1972). "Discussion: Structure, sign, and play in the discourse of the human sciences". In R. Macksey & E. Donato (Eds.), The structuralist controversy. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Derrida J. ( 1982). Of grammatology. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Ebel R. L. ( 1984). "Achievement test items: Current issues". In B. S. Plake (Ed.), Social and technical issues in testing. Implications for test construction and usage (pp. 141-154). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Embretson S. ( 1983). "Construct validity: Construct representation versus nomothetic span". Psychological Bulletin, 93, 179-197.

Heath R. W. ( 1964). "Curriculum, cognition, and educational development". Educational and Psychological Measurement, 24, 239-253.

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