Construction Versus Choice in Cognitive Measurement: Issues in Constructed Response, Performance Testing, and Portfolio Assessment

By Randy Elliot Bennett; William C. Ward | Go to book overview
the model for a given student is known only up to the probabilities of various alternatives.
4. Test theory consists of rules and techniques for designing observational settings to obtain information to reduce uncertainty about student models, and for carrying out inferences and making decisions in the presence of remaining uncertainty.
5. Choice and construction items are two options for obtaining information to update a student model.
6. Decisions about the type of observations to gather should be made in light of (a) the information they provide for the decision at hand, and (b) the real and potential consequences of the method of testing for the system in which the testing takes place.

The chapter's objectives are achieved to the extent that it places the debate on choice and construction in a framework wherein advocates of different approaches can ask questions that have common meanings to all participants, and that can, at least in principle, be answered.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The work was supported by the Program Research Planning Council of Educational Testing Service.


REFERENCES

Andersen S. K., Jensen F. V., Olesen K. G., & Jensen F. ( 1989). HUGIN: A shell for building Bayesian belief universes for expert systems [Computer program]. Aalborg, Denmark: HUGIN Expert.

Andreassen S., Jensen F. V., & Olesen K. G. ( 1990). Medical expert systems based on causal probabilistic networks. Aalborg, Denmark: Institute of Electronic Systems, Aalborg University.

Andreassen S., Woldbye M., Falck B., & Andersen S. K. ( 1987). "MUNIN: A causal probabilistic network for interpretation of electromyographic findings". Proceedings of the 10th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (pp. 366-372). Milan: Kaufmann.

Bennett R. E. (in press). "Toward intelligent assessment: An integration of constructed response testing, artificial intelligence, and model-based measurement". In N. Frederiksen, R. J. Mislevy , & I. I. Bejar (Eds.), Test theory for a new generation of tests. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bloom B. S. ( 1976). Human characteristics and school learning. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Bock R. D. ( 1972). "Estimating item parameters and latent ability when responses are scored in two or more nominal categories". Psychometrika, 37, 29-52.

Chi M. T. H., Feltovich P., & Glaser R. ( 1981). Categorization and representation of physics problems by experts and novices. Cognitive Science, 5, 121-152.

Clement J. ( 1982). "Students' preconceptions of introductory mechanics". American Journal of Physics, 50, 66-71.

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