Construction Versus Choice in Cognitive Measurement: Issues in Constructed Response, Performance Testing, and Portfolio Assessment

By Randy Elliot Bennett; William C. Ward | Go to book overview

The alternative presented in this chapter is to have candidates produce their answers and enter them in a machine-scorable form. One of the formats discussed was a scannable grid and the other was a scannable template for handwritten numbers. Of these two formats, only the grid was accurate enough to be used at the time of this writing.

Although the overall statistical characteristics of questions presented in the 4-digit grid format were very good, additional investigation is needed to make decisions about how to deal with decimal equivalents of certain fractions, whether questions with more than one correct answer can be handled by the system, and the impact of this format on various population subgroups. in the tryout phase, the grid format was unexpectedly more difficult for females and Blacks (see Dorans & Schmitt, this volume). Two hypotheses have been advanced to explain this finding: (a) anxiety, and (b) lack of familiarity with the gridding procedure. Each of these conditions could affect population subgroups differently. Students received no advanced notice concerning the 4-digit grid format, but subsequent investigations will provide students with directions and samples. It seems clear that any novel item format should be thoroughly explained in advance of the test administration so that examinees are appropriately prepared.

Both the scannable grid and the scannable template should be considered forerunners to a computer-delivered test in which students would enter answers by typing on a keyboard. The widespread use of such a test awaits, among other things, a network of computerized centers in which to administer it. Some of the same questions raised about item suitability and rules for interpreting responses would also apply to responses gathered through this medium.


REFERENCES

Badger E. ( 1989). On their own: Student response to open-ended tests in mathematics. Quincy, MA: Massachusetts Educational Assessment Program, Massachusetts Department of Education.

Badger E., Thomas B., & McCormick E. ( 1990). Beyond paper & pencil. Quincy, MA: Massachusetts Educational Assessment Program, Massachusetts Department of Education.

Bennett R. E., Ward W. C., Rock D. A., & LaHart C. ( 1990). Toward a framework for constructed- response items (RR-90-7). Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

Mullis I. V. S. ( 1990). The NAEP guide. Princeton, NJ: National Assessment of Educational Progress, Educational Testing Service.

National Assessment of Educational Progress. ( 1988). Mathematics objectives, 1990 assessment. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

Reid-Green K. S. ( 1990). Analysis of a pilot study of machine recognition of handwritten digits (RM-90-3). Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

Shavelson R. J. ( 1990, April). Can indicator systems improve the effectiveness of mathematics and science education? The case of the U. S. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Boston, MA.

-182-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Construction Versus Choice in Cognitive Measurement: Issues in Constructed Response, Performance Testing, and Portfolio Assessment
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 342

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.