Urbanization in History: A Process of Dynamic Interactions

By A. M. Van Der Woude; Akira Hayami et al. | Go to book overview

spatial relations, and linkages which were strongest between complementary, functionally specialized places. By contrast, central places form geometrically regular hierarchies of similar towns, with new functions simply added as one moves up the order. This pattern was maintained in southern England.

Although the pace was slower and the geography less neat, the French experience was similar. During the nineteenth century, farming made regular progress, but market centres and provincial capitals grew very little despite the administrative status conferred upon them by the Revolution.7 Rapid urban growth was confined to the industrial regions and major transport centres, with the exception of Paris which paralleled London as the dominant or primate capital. The Dutch and Italian experience also becomes clearer in the dual-system perspective. Having lost their place at the centre of the early European world economy, their regional urban systems were larger than was required by the most intensive agricultural economy. The result was urban stagnation or--in percentage terms--even retrogression. The principal change was the emergence of a more marked hierarchy in city-size distribution, typical of central-place systems. By contrast, network cores tend towards an oligarchy of leading cities.

Even if the idea that modern agriculture needs only a relatively modest regional urban framework is accepted, the central-place system of rural England still stands out in this respect. The case of Japan may offer a further clue. As Rozman has pointed out, in that island nation there was a relatively smaller development of intermediate regional towns than in China.8 The presumption is that both Britain and Japan were able to substitute water transport, notably along their coasts, for overland carriage. The many intermediate centres typical of continental systems could be bypassed and trade channelled through a few gateway ports and junctions.


4. Conclusion

Urbanization is more than the transformation of a society from a situation in which it consists mainly of producers of food living on the land to one in which a few farmers feed an array of moulders of metal and pushers of paper who crowd together on a small fraction of the surface area. If these are the macro- outlines of the process and its numerical end points, they provide no hint of the historical experience between the beginning and the end, nor of the role of cities or their people. Very far back in the past, the development of a more settled, productive and complex rural society was closely tied to the rise of cities, which demanded greater efforts from the toilers on the land and yet provided the stimulus which we--significantly--call civilization. These cities were windows on the future for a society still huddled together against the

____________________
7
See ch. 5.
8
See ch. 4.

-362-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Urbanization in History: A Process of Dynamic Interactions
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 376

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.