Social Cleavages and Political Change: Voter Alignments and U.S. Party Coalitions

By Jeff Manza; Clem Brooks | Go to book overview
cleavage is estimated as being slightly larger in 1972 and 1976 and slightly smaller in 1992. Adding social issues to the model thus has the effect of slightly flattening out the class cleavage during the 1972- 1992 period, but the magnitude of the class cleavage during this period is largely unchanged. 83 There is thus no evidence for a declining trend in class voting once social issues are taken into account. 84These analyses thus yield a potentially significant finding: class divisions and social issue attitudes do not have a zero-sum relationship with one another. The postmaterialist thesis is thus only partially correct. Changes in the social issue cleavage have had an effect on the class cleavage since 1972, but only by flattening out what would have otherwise been a slight, net increase in the class cleavage during this period. With the exception of professionals, social issues affect all classes in the same way, and controlling for the social issue cleavage does not decrease the magnitude of the class cleavage. The rising importance of social issues and the growth of social liberalism are clearly important and politically relevant phenomena in their own right. However, their rise has little relationship to class politics and cannot be used to explain either the magnitude or the stability of the total class cleavage.
APPENDIX: OCCUPATION AND CLASS
In this chapter, we use information available in the NES about respondents' occupation to create our class categories. Within the constraints of the existing data, we have coded the class categories as follows:
Professionals (salaried and self-employed): architects, aerospace engineers, materials engineers, mining engineers, chemical engineers, civil engineers, agricultural engineers, industrial engineers, mapping scientists, computer systems analysts, lawyers, statisticians, physicists, chemists, geologists, food scientists, forestry scientists, physicians, dentists, registered nurses, dieticians, speech therapists, college professors, teachers, librarians, artists, social scientists, social workers, clergy, lawyers, judges, laboratory technicians, mapping technicians, air traffic controllers, and computer programmers;
Managers and administrators: chief executives, financial managers, personnel managers, purchasing managers, advertising managers, educational administrators, health managers, properties managers, postmasters, funeral directors, accountants, underwriters, financial

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Social Cleavages and Political Change: Voter Alignments and U.S. Party Coalitions
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v
  • Contents vii
  • Figures viii
  • Tables ix
  • Introduction 1
  • 1 - The Sociological Tradition in Political Behavior Research 9
  • 2 - Social Cleavages and American Politics 31
  • 3 - Class 49
  • Appendix: Occupation and Class 82
  • 4 - Religion 85
  • Appendix: Major Denominational Coding Scheme 126
  • 5 - Gender 128
  • Conclusion 151
  • 6 - Race and the Social Bases of Voter Alignments 155
  • Conclusion 175
  • 7 - Party Coalitions 176
  • Conclusion 196
  • Appendix: Changes in Group Political Alignments 198
  • 8 - Social Cleavages in the 1996 Election 201
  • Conclusion 214
  • 9 - Third Party Candidates 217
  • Conclusion 229
  • 10 - Conclusion 231
  • Notes 243
  • Bibliography 306
  • SUBJECT INDEX 335
  • NAME INDEX 340
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