Managing Urban America

By David R. Morgan; Robert E. England | Go to book overview

INTRODUCTION
Improved Urban Management -- Needed Now More Than Ever

Improving Public Management: An Overview

Things are changing in city government and not necessarily for the better. Until recent years, many practitioners and students of urban politics alike assumed that city governments would continue to grow, if not prosper. After all, state and local government payrolls expanded enormously during the 1960s and 1970s, much faster than at the federal level. Cities were doing more than ever, responding to new needs and demands. Keith Mulrooney, a former city manager of Claremont, California, describes his activities in the late 1960s:

confronting antiwar demonstrators, holding council meetings in Chicano houses, sitting with hippies in a park discussing last week's narcotics bust, bargaining against a labor pro, or contracting with the Black Students Union to conduct reading improvement programs for low achieving black school children. 1

These were the challenges of city management two decades ago, and they represented a significant departure from earlier issues such as building city infrastructures and developing a science of administration that would allow cities to be managed efficiently. "The shift in . . . priorities . . . [was] from the physically oriented to the human oriented." 2 Along with these new problems came lots of federal dollars and a sharp increase in municipal employment and programs. Between 1960 and 1980, for example, the number of federal grant-in-aid programs grew from 132. to well over 500 with a corresponding dollar growth of $7 to $91.5 billion. 3 In some communities, local officials developed new programs

-1-

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Managing Urban America
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface xiii
  • INTRODUCTION Improved Urban Management -- Needed Now More Than Ever 1
  • Suggested for Further Reading 15
  • Part One - The Environment of Urban Management 17
  • 1 - The External World of the Urban Manager 19
  • Notes 51
  • Notes 54
  • 2 - Urban Political Structure 56
  • Notes 78
  • Notes 81
  • Part Two - Making and Implementing Urban Policy 83
  • 3 - Urban Policymaking 85
  • Notes 113
  • Notes 116
  • 4 - Decision Making 117
  • 4 Decision Making 137
  • Suggested for Further Reading 141
  • 5 - Analysis for Urban Decisions 143
  • Notes 173
  • Notes 176
  • 6 - Urban Service Delivery 177
  • Notes 205
  • Notes 208
  • Summary 234
  • Suggested for Further Reading 237
  • Part Three - Internal Management Processes 239
  • 8 - The Management Process: Theory and Practice 241
  • Notes 270
  • Notes 273
  • 9 - Personnel Policies and Practices 274
  • Notes 302
  • Notes 306
  • 10 - Finance and Budget 307
  • Notes 336
  • Notes 339
  • Part Four - The Urban Future 341
  • II Urban Economic Development 365
  • Notes 366
  • Suggested for Further Reading 368
  • 12 - Managing the Urban Future 369
  • Suggested for Further Reading 392
  • Index 393
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