Changing Lives of Refugee Hmong Women

By Nancy D. Donnelly | Go to book overview

HMONG LANGUAGE, ORTHOGRAPHY, AND NAMES

Hmong words are mostly single syllables, beginning with a consonant and ending with a vowel. Some words are compounds built of monsyllabic words. Hmong language in the United States is generally written using the Romanized Phonetic Alphabet (RPA) in a system developed by G. F. Barney and W. A. Smalley in the 1950s (see Heimbach 1979: xi-xvi for its history). In the Barney/ Smalley system, doubled vowels represent nasal sounds. Final consonant letters indicate the tone of the word, and are not pronounced.

The Hmong dialect groups represented in the United States are the White Hmong (Hmoob Dawb), who are more numerous, and the Blue- Green Hmong (Moob Ntsuab). Ntsuab literally means green, or blue-green, but the Moob Ntsuab of Seattle prefer the term Blue, which they link with the indigo-dyed clothes that differentiated them in Laos from the White Hmong, who wore white festival skirts. Blue Hmong dialect has fewer initial aspirations (thus Moob instead of Hmoob) and more nasals (thus Vang instead of Va). Many vowels follow shifts in pronunciation, so that, for instance -ia in White Hmong is pronounced -a in Blue Hmong (thus kuv has tas instead of kuv hais tias). Most of my subjects were Blue Hmong, but a few were White Hmong, and most writing about the Hmong, including the best dictionary available, refers to White Hmong dialect.

In this book, I did not want to convert Blue Hmong into White Hmong, but I wanted to avoid different spellings for the same word from different speakers. Spoken Hmong of either dialect is not easily converted to written form. The seven tones, or pitches, are especially tricky, as a word in a sentence can change its tone depending on the neighboring words. There were many occasions when my best informants stumbled over the spelling of Hmong words. For these reasons, I decided to give Hmong spellings in this book only occasionally (for instance, the nonsense verses in chapter 6). I have usually written the Hmong words as an English speaker would pronounce them, often omitting the Hmong version. It is not necessary here to take a stand between the names Tsuj and Tsus; I called him Chue.

-vii-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Changing Lives of Refugee Hmong Women
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • HMONG LANGUAGE, ORTHOGRAPHY, AND NAMES vii
  • 1 - Discovering the Hmong 3
  • 2 - Hmong Society in Laos 19
  • 3 - Changing Times 48
  • 4 - The Hmong in Seattle 59
  • 5 - Selling Hmong Textiles 88
  • 6 - Courtship and Elopement 113
  • 7 - Wedding Negotiations and Ceremonies 145
  • 8 - Domestic Conflict 167
  • 9 - What Does Change Mean? 183
  • Notes 193
  • REFERENCES CITED 209
  • Index 217
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 224

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

    Already a member? Log in now.