Growing Pains: Russian Democracy and the Election of 1993

By Timothy J. Colton; Jerry F. Hough | Go to book overview

vaded the campaign, gaining expression in complicated interethnic alliances in Bashkortostan and in a defiant, elite-led resistance to the election itself in Tatarstan.

In the conclusion (chapter 21), Jerry F. Hough recaps the book's findings and ponders some lessons for the future of Russia's protodemocracy and for Western policy toward it.


Notes
1.
Dwight Semler, "The End of the First Russian Republic," East European Constitutional Review, vols. 2/ 3 (Fall 1993/Winter 1994), pp. 107-14.
2.
The neglect of post-Soviet politics and government in the provinces is beginning to be remedied. See, for example, Theodore H. Friedgut and Jeffrey W. Hahn, eds., Local Power and Post-Soviet Politics ( Armonk, N.Y.: Sharpe, 1994); Peter Kirkow , "Regional Politics and Market Reform in Russia: The Case of the Altai," Europe-Asia Studies, vol. 46 ( November 1994), pp. 1163-88; Gavin Helf, "All the Russias: Center, Core, and Periphery in Soviet and Post-Soviet Russia" (Ph.D. dissertation, University of California at Berkeley, 1994); Peter Kirkow, "Regional Warlordism in Russia: The Case of Primorskii Krai," Europe-Asia Studies, vol. 47 ( September 1995), pp. 923-48; Jane E. Prokop, "Industrial Policy and Marketization in Russia's Regions, 1990-1994" (Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1996); and Kathryn Stoner-Weiss, Local Heroes: The Political Economy of Governmental Performance in Provincial Russia ( Princeton University Press, 1997).
3.
Samuel P. Huntington, The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century ( University of Oklahoma Press, 1991), p. 174.
4.
Giuseppe Di Palma, To Craft Democracies: An Essay on Democratic Transitions ( University of California Press, 1990), p. 80; Huntington, Third Wave, pp. 174-91.
5.
Guillermo O'Donnell and Philippe C. Schmitter, Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies ( Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986), pp. 61-62.
6.
Izvestiya, October 26, 1991, p. 2.
7.
Boris Yeltsin, The Struggle for Russia, trans. Catherine A. Fitzpatrick ( New York: Times Books, 1994), p. 127.
8.
Foreshadowing the parliamentary election later that year, the method of tallying the votes, and especially the proportions of the whole, was controversial in April 1993. Invalid ballots were counted in the denominator of the referendum results. Thus, although about 1.6 million more voted in favor of an early presidential election than voted against it, the record showed fewer than 50 percent of the official vote total (including invalid ballots) appoving a presidential election. Rossiiskaya gazeta, May 6, 1993, p. 1.
9.
Wendy Slater, "No Victors in the Russian Referendum," RFE/RL Research Report, vol. 2, no. 21 ( May 21, 1993), p. 19.

-31-

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