Growing Pains: Russian Democracy and the Election of 1993

By Timothy J. Colton; Jerry F. Hough | Go to book overview

true in 1995 when twenty-two parties won at least one seat, usually including one of their top leaders. 67

Finally, mass parties are formed for the purpose of mobilizing greater voter turnout, and they generally have this impact. This certainly did not occur in 1993, and it is somewhat of a surprise. The dissolution of the Congress and the shelling of the parliament building (the White House) were certainly dramatic. Four separate elections--party, district, Federation Council, and constitution--were being held. A party-list election seemingly gave the electorate the chance to express a clear opinion about the fall of the former regime and about the results of two years of economic reform.

Some of the reasons for and implications of these results have already been suggested in this chapter. However, hypotheses and explanations, although rational-choice theorists do not like to admit it, generally come from experience and observation rather than from theory, and anthropological work needs to accompany survey work and rational-actor analysis. The articles by the younger scholars in this book are precisely such anthropological work. Once the evidence of this anthropological work has been examined, it will be possible (and appropriate) to assess the broader implications of the 1993 Russian election and the growing pains of Russian democracy.


Notes
1
Classic studies are Maurice Duverger, Political Parties: Their Organization and Activity in the Modern State ( London: Methuen, 1954); Douglas Rae, The Political Consequences of Electoral Laws, rev. ed. ( Yale University Press, 1971); Rein Taagepera and Matthew Soberg Shugart, Seats and Votes: The Effects and Determinants of Electoral Systems ( Yale University Press, 1989); and Arend Lijphart , Electoral Systems and Party Systems: a Study of Twenty-Seven Democracies, 1945-1990 ( Oxford University Press, 1994). Of course, sophisticated statistical methods can lead to controversy as well as definitive clarification. See Alberto Penades , "A Critique of Lijphart's 'Electoral Systems and Party Systems,'" and Lijphart answer, "The Difficult Science of Electoral Systems: A Commentary on the Critique by Alberto Penades," both in Electoral Studies, vol. 16, no. 1 ( March 1997), pp. 59-72.
2.
Olga Bychkova, "Partiinye spiski v redaktsii Viktora Sheinisa," Moskovskiye novosti, June 20-25, 1993, p. 9. Before 1985, Sheinis had been a scholar studying southern Europe and Latin America. See Jerry F. Hough, The Struggle for the Third World ( Brookings, 1986), pp. 63, 64, 96, 102, and 140.
3.
See B. A. Strashun and V. L. Sheinis, "Politicheskaya situatsiya v Rossii i novyy izbiratel'nyy zakon," Polis, no. 3 ( 1993), p. 68, for the 3 percent limit pro-

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