true in 1995 when twenty-two parties won at least one seat, usually including one of their top leaders. 67
Finally, mass parties are formed for the purpose of mobilizing greater voter turnout, and they generally have this impact. This certainly did not occur in 1993, and it is somewhat of a surprise. The dissolution of the Congress and the shelling of the parliament building (the White House) were certainly dramatic. Four separate elections--party, district, Federation Council, and constitution--were being held. A party-list election seemingly gave the electorate the chance to express a clear opinion about the fall of the former regime and about the results of two years of economic reform.
Some of the reasons for and implications of these results have already been suggested in this chapter. However, hypotheses and explanations, although rational-choice theorists do not like to admit it, generally come from experience and observation rather than from theory, and anthropological work needs to accompany survey work and rational-actor analysis. The articles by the younger scholars in this book are precisely such anthropological work. Once the evidence of this anthropological work has been examined, it will be possible (and appropriate) to assess the broader implications of the 1993 Russian election and the growing pains of Russian democracy.