St. Petersburg The Election in the Democratic Metropolis
Yitzhak M. Brudny
THE LITERATURE analyzing the process of transition from authoritarian to democratic rule puts great emphasis on the inaugural election that ushers in the democratic regime. This election, therefore, is called a "founding election." 1 Although a series of parliamentary and presidential elections took place in Russia between 1989 and 1991, no founding election ever occurred. Instead the executive and legislative institutions formed during the transition period continued their existence in the postcommunist era. The December 12, 1993, parliamentary election was, therefore, both the first postcommunist election and the first multiparty election in Russia.
Called roughly two and a half years after the collapse of communism, this election was dominated by issues typical to postcommunist societies: the pace of transition to the market economy and the cost associated with it; the nature of the division of power between executive and legislative branches of government; and the extent of the territorial boundaries of the nation-state. 2 The December 1993 election took place under a very different____________________