Growing Pains: Russian Democracy and the Election of 1993

By Timothy J. Colton; Jerry F. Hough | Go to book overview

Notes
1.
For voting results by oblast since 1989, see L. V. Sniimiagin, managing ed., Rossiiskiye regiony nakanune vyborov-95 ( Moscow: Yuridicheskaia literatura, 1995).
2.
This follows roughly the five-tiered categorization of parties and blocs used by Timothy Colton in chapter 1, this volume, with the caveat of combining the radical reformist and moderate reformist categories in a single reformist camp and the nationalist and socialist categories in a single antireformist camp.
3.
Sverdlovsk's 1996 regional parliamentary elections were modeled after the national elections, with half of the seats going in a PR party-list election in one regionwide district and the other half of the seats going in twenty-one single-member districts.
4.
See Ralph S. Clem and Peter R. Craumer, "The Politics of Russia's Regions: A Geographic Analysis of the Russian Election and Constitutional Plebiscite of December 1993," Post-Soviet Geography, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 67-87.
5.
See chapter 14, this volume.
6.
"Zabastovka v Severoural'ske," Na Smenu, December 3, 1993.
7.
Personal interview with Valerii Novoselov, candidate in State Duma elections in Artemovskii electoral district and first secretary of the Sverdlovsk oblast Communist Party of the Russian Federation, November 1993. According to the 1989 census, only 2 percent of the population worked on collective farms for Sverdlovsk oblast as a whole, which was the lowest in the Urals region and among the lowest in the federation. Gosudarstvennyi Komitet RSFSR postalistike, Kratkaya Sotsial'no-demograficheskaya Kharakteristika Naseleniya RSFSR, vol, 2: Istochniki sredstv senshchestvovaniya, obshchestvennye gruppy ( Moscow: Respublikanskii informatsoye-izdatel'skii tsentr, 1991), pp. 100-01.
8.
Personal interview with Valerii Sartakov, head of the Sverdlovsk Oblast Administration Information-Analytical Center, December 1993.
9.
Occupational profiles of 1990 deputies were taken from a data set supplied by Jerry Hough.
10.
Personal interview with Oleg Podverezin, general director, Sverdlovsk Oblast Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs, December 1993.
11.
A. D. Kirillov claims that, despite the proliferation of political organizations in the area, real political influence remained in the hands of large state enterprises and agricultural interests. A. D. Kirillov, Ural: Tendentsii Politicheskogo Razvitiya, 1991-1993 ( Yekaterinburg: U rals Cadre Center, 1993), p. 21.
12.
Personal interview with Valerii Sartakov, Sverdlovsk Oblast Administration Information-Analytical Center; Boris Bagirov, dean of the philosophy faculty, Urals State University; and Aleksandr Khuzin, head of Sverdlovsk oblast Administration Commission of Social Organizations. Both Sartakov and Bagirov stressed the influence state enterprise directors had over Rossel and his network of city and raion level heads of administration. Khuzin claimed that the movement for a Urals Republic and protection of regional economic interests tended to take a centrist position toward economic reform, preferring a slower movement toward a market economy that favored the interests of state directors.

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