Growing Pains: Russian Democracy and the Election of 1993

By Timothy J. Colton; Jerry F. Hough | Go to book overview

the direction their radicalism takes is undetermined. Somewhat more pessimistically, the coal miners might simply be the avant-garde of Russian politics--they were one of the first social groups to support perestroika, but when they became dissatisfied, they turned against Gorbachev and became one of the first groups to support Yeltsin. Now that Yeltsin has failed to deliver, they appear ready to turn elsewhere, perhaps anywhere.


Notes
1.
Eighty-seven percent of the population are urban dwellers. AVISTA database, available at Duke University Library.
2.
Mikhail Gorbachev, Zhizn'i Reformy ( Moscow: Novosti, 1995), 2 volumes.
3.
See Stephen Crowley, Hot Coal, Cold Steel: Russian and Ukrainian Workers from the End of the Soviet Union to the Post-Communist Transformations ( University of Michigan Press, 1997).
4.
In getting nominated to run for the presidency, he collected more than 300,000 signatures, mostly from industrial enterprises. "Tuleyev on Presidential Election Platform: Moscow." Selskaya Zhizn, May 28, 1991, in FBIS-SOV-91- 106, June 3, 1991, pp. 83-85.
5.
Tuleyev came in fourth in the overall voting, with 6.8 percent of the votes cast, just behind Zhirinovskii's 7.8 percent. TASS, "Soobshcheniye: Tsentral'noi izbiratelnoi komissii po vyboram Prezidenta RSFSR." Pravda, June 20, 1991, p. 1. Miners' districts were said by political observers in the region to have gone for Yeltsin and not Tuleyev in 1991. Interview, Leonid Lopatin, November 29, 1993.
6.
Although Clarke and Fairbrother see this as a modest turnout and evidence of the miners' conditional support for "liberal reformers," this appears to be a case of seeing the glass as half empty. Simon Clarke and Peter Fairbrother, "After the Coup: The Workers' Movement in the Transition to a Market Economy," in Simon Clarke and others, What about the Workers: Workers and the Transition to Capitalism in Russia ( London: Verso, 1993). That the miners' protests were taken seriously is reflected in coal minister Shchadov's suggestion to the coup leaders of imposing martial law on the Kuzbass.
7.
The text of Tuleyev's statements can be found in Leonid N. Lopatin, compiler, Rabocheye Dvizheniye Kuzbassa ( Kemerovo: Kemerovo Izdatel' stvo, 1993).
8.
Kislyuk was a manager in an open-faced mining concern who joined the miners during their 1989 strike and became the chief architect of the miners' demands for economic independence. Malykhin was a gruff but quick-witted miner who came to national prominence during the second all-Union strike of 1991.
9.
The concessions were made after strikes broke out. Subsidies to the coal industry absorbed 20 percent of the revenues of the Russian state by May 1993. "Fedorov Proposes New Measures to Stabilize Ruble," Izvestiya, May 8, 1993, cited in RFE/RL Daily Report, May 11, 1993. Efforts to place the industry on the market

-558-

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