Growing Pains: Russian Democracy and the Election of 1993

By Timothy J. Colton; Jerry F. Hough | Go to book overview

Table 20-2. 1994 Election Outcome by Okrug (District)
Okrug Winning candidate Affiliation Percent of vote
Al'metevskii Yegorov Unity and Progress 73.9
Moskovskii Morozov Unity and Progress 46.8
Naberezhniye Chelny Altykhov Communist party 40.9
Nizhnekamskii Bagautdinov Communist party 69.1
Privolzhskii Mikhailova RiZ/Russia's Choice 23.9
Federation Council Shaimiyev Unity and Progress 91.2
Federation Council Mukhametshin Unity and Progress 71.1
Source: "Ravnopraviye i Zakonnost," Bulletin' ib RiZ, no. 2, March 1994, p. 1.

consensus--between center and regional elites as well as among regional elites regarding the definition of both federation and democracy. In short, Moscow's failure to understand the need to bargain or negotiate with Tatarstan's leaders before the December 1993 election led to a different outcome than it had originally intended. Instead of either consolidating democracy or solidifying Russia's territorial integrity, this election invoked existing separatist tendencies among the Tatarstan's ethnic Tatars and hence gave the republic's leaders a crucial bargaining chip with which to challenge Moscow's definition of federalism.

With the signing of a bilateral treaty between Moscow and Kazan, the question of Tatarstan's status is more or less resolved between central and regional elites. This alone made possible the successful outcome, for elites in both Moscow and Kazan, of the March 1994 election. Yet, the issue of ethnic separatism remains unresolved within the republic itself Groups continue to be polarized into proseparatist and profederation factions, which are divided essentially along ethnic lines. In short, there is no consensus among elites within Tatarstan on the proper relationship between their republic and the Russian Federation. As a result, the democratic consolidation process is hindered not only in the Tatar Republic but in the Russian Federation as a whole.


Notes
1.
According to Article 39 of the "Regulations on the Elections of Deputies to the State Duma in 1993" issued in President Boris Yeltsin's decree on October 1 1993, a minimum of 25 percent of registered voters must participate in the elections for the results to be validated. Elections to the Federation Council were not held at all because only two of the three required candidates registered by the stipulated deadline.

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