It is sufficient here to note that, however strongly the belief in specialization may be rooted in the culture, its practical applications must meet the tests of social expediency and rough conformity with other values held in the society.
Related to the considerations just advanced is the problem of controlled specialization. It was noted that, although the division of labor requires coordination of labor, this is accomplished in an industrial plant by means of authority. Thus the general assumptions of economic individualism in regard to free and impersonal competition within a few well-recognized rules, resulting in an "automatic" judgment of appropriate position in the entire system, break down for all but a limited number of entrepreneurs and managers. . . . The industrial system has shown a considerable adaptability to noncapitalistic doctrines and types of organization, while imposing its own requirements for specialization and coordination of specialized activities.
Thomas C. Fichandler
The labor force includes a great variety of different kinds of workers engaged in a wide range of jobs. Although the majority are employees working for wages or salaries at regular full-time jobs, in 1950 some eleven____________________