Man, Work, and Society: A Reader in the Sociology of Occupations

By Sigmund Nosow; William H. Form | Go to book overview

NOTES
1.
Lansing, Michigan, is a highly industrialized city with a heavy concentration of manufacturing in the transportation industry. At the time of the study ( November 1950 to June 1951) the area had a population of about 100,000 from which a sample of 600 manual workers was randomly selected from the Polk Directory for Lansing. All were currently employed.
2.
Normative system as used here will refer to an interconnected set of "ideal" patterns expressing the goals and standards of behavior of a group at a particular time. Actual behavior, therefore, is anchored to this normative system which expresses the beliefs, sentiments, and values of the group.
3.
Universalism is based upon what the individual is; particularism is based upon who the individual is. See T. Parsons, Essays in Sociological Theory (Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1949), p. 192 ff. More recently universalism- particularism has appeared as a basic pattern variable in T. Parsons, The Social System (Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1951), and T. Parsons and E. A. Shils, Toward a General Theory of Action ( Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1952). As particularism is used in this paper, who the individual is not only rests upon the particular role relationships between individuals but also upon the classes into which individuals fit. Hence, universalistic standards would bring the same responses to a Negro semiskilled worker as to a white semiskilled worker; to a married semiskilled worker as to an unmarried one; to a college educated person as to an illiterate; provided they have the same technical competences.
4.
Some of the possibilities for the empirical testing of these propositions were first presented to the author by Professor W. F. Cottrell of Miami University ( Oxford, Ohio). This research in Lansing is in a sense a follow-up of research done in another labor market. See "A Comparative Study of the Work Forces of Two Paper Plants in 'Eggleston,' Ohio" (unpublished M.A. thesis, Department of Sociology, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, 1949).
5.
Although religion operates as a significant variable in some labor markets, the heavy concentration of both Catholics and Protestants in this section of Michigan seems to have destroyed religious barriers to employment, at least at the manual levels.
6.
For a fuller presentation of the empirical materials, see the author's "Lansing, Michigan--A Study of a Local Labor Market" (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Economics and Social Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1952).
7.
The statistical techniques most used were the chi-square test for differences between the observed frequency distributions and the expected ones, and the mean square contingency test for correlation or degree of relationship between variables.
8.
E. W. Noland and E. W. Bakke, in their study, Workers Wanted ( New York: Harper & Brothers, 1949), p. 9 ff., point out some of the qualifications of workers considered to be of outstanding importance to employers. These qualifications are ranked, most to least important, in the following way: character, sex, personality, physique, particular experience, education, color, top age, best age, general experience, citizenship, family status, residence, politics, nationality, and religion.
9.
Several other variables which might have had important roles in affecting

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