This paper has developed the differential sensitivity by personnel at
various levels of a profession to the contingencies of their profession
and its milieu. It indicates some problems involving institutional integration and adaptation which require continued research. The emphasis on
technical functions, so important in professional studies, must yield to the
study of the meanings of such skills and their place in the social organization of the profession. Technical solutions achieved by professions with
regard to functions, standards, and qualifications must satisfy, at the
same time, the demands of professional integration and adaptation.
Dan C. Lortie, "Doctors without Patients: The Anesthesiologist, a New
Medical Specialty" (unpublished Master's thesis, Department of Sociology, University of Chicago, 1950).
The radiologist, who is often a salaried hospital employee, is now urged by
his professional associates to go onto a fee-for-service basis with direct
charges to "his" patients.
Harvey L. Smith, "Two Lines of Authority Are One Too Many," The
, Modern Hospital Publishing Company, 1955, pp. 59
Harvey L. Smith, "The Value Context of Psychology," American Psychologist
, Vol. 9, September 1954, pp. 532
Harvey L. Smith, "New Roles for Psychiatry: A Sociological Study" (unpublished manuscript).
The public often cannot clearly distinguish among registered nurses, aides,
and practical nurses in hospitals. Similar confusion has been shown to
exist as to the differences among psychologists, psychiatrists, and psychoanalysts.
For a detailed, pioneer analysis of organization fictions by Robert Dubin
see "Organization Fictions" in
Robert Dubin, ed., Human Relations in
, New York: Prentice-Hall, 1951, pp. 341
For studies dealing with the gap between training and work and its effects
see Miriam Wagenschein, "Reality Shock" (unpublished Master's thesis,
Department of Sociology, University of Chicago, 1950); also Alvin Katz, "The Development and Design of Operational Devices: A Case Study
of Sociological Research in Process" (unpublished Master's thesis, University of North Carolina, 1955).
Clearly, certain medical specialties are defensive about their present place
in medicine. Recruitment problems are often entailed (e.g., among
4. PROFESSIONALISM AND SOCIAL
T. H. Marshall
The position of the professions in the recent past was a curious one.
They enjoyed, as organizations, varying degrees of group monopoly and
developed, in varying degrees, a group spirit and a group conscience.