Man, Work, and Society: A Reader in the Sociology of Occupations

By Sigmund Nosow; William H. Form | Go to book overview
17.
The responses of 100 cases were used in this operation. They were randomly selected on the basis of the case numbers. These occupational series were chosen by taking every nth occupation in the series arranged by decreasing prestige value.
18.
A "quasi-scale" seems to indicate the presence of scalability but one with too little precision present to allow the identification of "cutting-points."
19.
These "occupational families" would be of such a nature as to coincide with what Benoit-Smullyan has called situs within the broader area of stratification. ( Emile Benoit-Smullyan, "Status, Status Types, and Status Interrelations," American Sociological Review, Vol. 9, No. 2, April 1944, pp. 154-161.)
20.
Guttman, "A Basis for Scaling Qualitative Data,"op. cit. In the following tables the key figures for the evaluation of scalability are the number of items, the number of responses scaled, and the two reproducibility indexes. Thus, the larger the number of responses scaled, the more rigorous the test and the more satisfactory the scale.

"Reproducibility" refers to the percentage of accuracy with which the scores on the individual items making up a scale may be predicted knowing only the total score (ratings of selected occupations in this case) of all occupations in that scale. A reproducibility of 80-85 may indicate adequate scalability if satisfactory levels of rigorousness on the other criteria are met but generally would reveal a quasi-scale. An index of 85 or, perhaps better, 90 indicates satisfactory scalability. Reproducibility indexes, must, however, be interpreted in the light of the minimum marginal reproducibility which represents the per cent of ratings falling at the modal value. Thus, the lower the minimum marginal figure and the higher the reproducibility, the greater is the improvement in predictability of responses to the items over that which would result from chance alone.

21.
This problem has been clearly seen and stated by Elbridge Sibley in "Some Demographic Clues to Stratification," American Sociological Review, Vol. 7, No. 3, June 1942, pp. 322-330.

2. INCOME AND OCCUPATIONS ·

Herman P. Miller

Table 1 shows the occupational distribution of employed persons by sex, as well as the mean and the median income received by persons in each occupation group. . . .

There is a very large gap between the incomes of the highest paid workers like doctors and dentists and the lowest paid workers such as farm and nonfarm laborers. However, for most occupation groups, the income differentials are quite narrow. Nonfarm laborers, for example, had a median income of $2300 in 1951 or about $44 per week. The corresponding median for service workers was only slightly higher ($2500 or $48 per week), and the median for operatives was $3100 or $60 a week. The craftsmen, clerical workers, and sales workers each had median incomes ranging between $3400 and $3700 for the year or between $65 and $70 a week. The use of over-all averages based on

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