This paper has demonstrated the existence, among Chicago school-
teachers, of what has been called a "horizontal" plane of career strivings
and movements and has traced the kind of career patterns which occur,
at this level, in a public bureaucracy where movement is achieved through
manipulation of formal procedures. It suggests that studies of other occupations, in which greater emphasis on vertical movement may obscure
the presence and effects of such horizontal mobility, might well direct their
attention to such phenomena.
. . . . .
Oswald Hall, "The Stages of a Medical Career," American Journal of
Sociology, Vol. 53, March 1948, p. 327.
Everett C. Hughes, "Institutional Office and the Person," American
Journal of Sociology, Vol. 43, November 1937, pp. 404-413;
Hall, op. cit., and "Types of Medical Careers," American Journal of
Sociology, Vol. 55, November 1949, pp. 243-253; and
Melville Dalton, "Informal Factors in Career Achievement," American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 56, March 1951, pp. 407-415.
The Chicago system has a high enough salary schedule and sufficient security safeguards to be safe as a system in which a person can make
his entire career, thus differing from smaller school systems in which the
teacher does not expect to spend her whole working life.
Later papers will provide detailed analysis and documentation of the statements made in this and the following paragraph.
The class categories used in this estimate are those used by
W. Lloyd Warner
Paul Lunt in The Social Life of a Modern Community, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1941.
Further documentation of this point may be found in
Miriam Wagenschein, "Reality Shock" (unpublished M.A. thesis, Department of Sociology,
University of Chicago 1951, and in
John Winget's Ph.D. thesis, "Ecological and Socio-Cultural Factors in Teacher Inter-school Mobility."
6. CAREERS, LIFE STYLE, AND SOCIAL
Harold L. Wilensky
Careers, though they grip only a minority of the labor force, are a
major source of stability for modern society, as Weber, Mannheim, and
many others have noted. Every group must recruit and maintain its personnel and motivate role performance. Careers serve these functions for
organizations, occupational groups, and societies. At the same time they
give continuity to the personal experience of the most able and skilled
segments of the population--men who otherwise would produce a level
of rebellion or withdrawal which would threaten the maintenance of the
system. By holding out the prospect of continuous, predictable rewards,
careers foster a willingness to train and achieve, to adopt a long view,
and defer immediate gratifications for the later pay off. In Mannheim's