ample, the bureaucrat), adherence to the norms and maintenance of skills will be enough protection to maintain his occupational role. The cult of personality then is differentially necessary, dependent upon the stage of the career, the career aspirations of the individual, and his technical proficiency. In an occupational situation in which personality is the major protective variable in the performance of the occupational role, the personality of the individual in this role must be congruent with the demands the role places upon personality. In those situations in which the major protective device for the individual is technical proficiency, the personality plays a relatively minor role, beyond the actual entrance or selection into the occupation.
· Erich Fromm
The marketing orientation developed as a dominant one only in the modern era. In order to understand its nature one must consider the economic function of the market in modern society as being not only analogous to this character orientation but as the basis and the main condition for its development in modern man.
Barter is one of the oldest economic mechanisms. The traditional local market, however, is essentially different from the market as it has developed in modern capitalism. Bartering on a local market offered an opportunity to meet for the purpose of exchanging commodities. Producers and customers became acquainted; they were relatively small groups; the demand was more or less known, so that the producer could produce for this specific demand.
The modern market1 is no longer a meeting place but a mechanism characterized by abstract and impersonal demand. One produces for this