IN THE PREPARATION OF THE MANUSCRIPT FOR THIS BOOK THE AUTHOR HAS BENEFITED FROM THE RESEARCH OF MANY specialists. To arrive at a reasonably accurate summary of what modern research has contributed as a foundation proved to be a task of considerable magnitude. In his effort to avoid the many opportunities for error the author has availed himself of the constructive criticisms of a number of colleagues in art and anthropology. The books that contributed directly to the work are listed in the selected bibliography.
Professor Paul S. Wingert of Columbia University has read the manuscript, and I am indebted to him for many comments and criticisms in connection with the text. Dr. Perry B. Cott, of the National Gallery of Art, has also read the manuscript and been helpful with suggestions. Mr. J. B. Eggen, of Hurlock, Maryland, read parts of the manuscript and has contributed data on the anthropological side and advised in regard to the text itself. I am indebted to Dr. Ben Karpman, Chief Psychotherapist of St. Elizabeth's Hospital, Washington, D. C., and to Dr. A. L. Kroeber, Professor Emeritus of the Department of Anthropology, University of California, for their kindness in reading portions of the second chapter dealing with the psychological approach in its bearing on totemism. I have benefited from this assistance and herewith extend my thanks. Any errors or omissions are due entirely to the author and are not the responsibility of the several persons here mentioned.
For assisting me with special information, I am grateful to the following persons: Dr. Matthew W. Stirling, Chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology (the Olmec section); Mr. René Batigne, Director, and Miss Louisa Bellinger, Curator, of the Textile Museum of the District of Columbia (Peruvian textiles), Mr. Batigne (for an advance proof of the manuscript of Dr. Junius Bird's Catalogue Raisonné of Paracas and Nazca Needlework, 3rd Century, B. C.-3rd Century A. D., of the Textile Museum of the District of Columbia 1955); Dr. Stirling (for an early copy of "Stone Monuments of the Rio Chiquito, Veracruz, Mexico" [ 1955]); Mrs. G. Philip Bauer (for an advance copy of the Carnegie Institution of Washington publications on Ancient Maya Paintings of Bonampak, Mexico [ 1955]); Mr. William Fagg, of the British Museum (Yoruba sculpture); Dr. Melville J. Herskovits, of Northwestern University (Dahomey art); Dr. Stanley Stubbs, of the Laboratory of Anthropology, of Santa Fe, New Mexico (Navaho rugs and Navaho and Zufii silver); Dr. J. Eric S. Thompson, Carnegie Institution of Washington (Maya sculpture); Dr. Terah L. Smiley, Geochronologist, Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (for information in regard to the Douglass tree-ring calendar).
In connection with study in museums and collections, I am indebted to the following directors and curators for having given me of their time: Mrs. Willena D. Cartwright, Denver Art Museum; Mr. J. Ed. Davis, Indian Arts and Crafts Board, United States Department of Interior, Washington, D. C.; Mr. Richard S. Finley, Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Santa Barbara, California; Mr. F. F. Latta, Kern County Museum, Bakersfield, California; Miss Dorothy C. Miller, Museum of Modern Art; Mr. George Mills, The Taylor Museum, Colorado Springs, Colorado; Dr. Frederick R. Pleasants, Brooklyn Museum; Mrs. Ruth De Ette Simpson, Southwest Museum, Los Angeles, California.
The Smithsonian Institution, Department of Ethnology, has kindly made available to me for study objects kept in storage, for which I express thanks. I am grateful to the Belgian Embassy and the Embassy of New Zealand for printed information and for photographs, and to Mr. Reginald Barrett, Liaison Officer of Nigeria, and to Mr. W. A. R. Walker, Liaison Officer of the Gold Coast. Mr. James V. Herring, Professor Emeritus of Art of Howard University, has kindly oriented me in regard to contemporary African wood carvers.
Many museums, private collectors, and dealers have kindly furnished me with black-and-white photographs of works in their collections. Likewise, I have been furnished with color plates by various sources. I am grateful for