GABRIELLE. See LONGSTREET, GABRIELLE
GADSDEN PURCHASE. Willa Cather quite accurately notes in Death Comes for the Archbishop that on April 25, 1854, "by the Gadsden Purchase, . . . the United States took over from Mexico a great territory which now forms southern New Mexico and Arizona." After the Mexican War, James Gadsden, U.S. minister to Mexico, arranged for the purchase of more than 27,000 square miles of land with Antonio López de Santa Anna at a cost of $10 million. N: DC VII, 1
GAILLARDIA. Gaillardia pulchella, common in Nebraska, grows in dry soil and is found on the bluffs south of the Republican River (q.v.) at Red Cloud. In My Antonia Jim Burden notes that gaillardia mats the "ground with the deep, velvety red that is in Bokhara carpets." N: MA II, 14
GALLEGOS, FATHER . In Death Comes for the Archbishop, the materialistic priest in Albuquerque whom Father Vaillant reproaches for taking profits from Indians in the parish. When Bishop Latour learns of Gallegos's neglecting his duties, and of his love of gambling, dancing, and carousing, he dismisses the priest. Though Willa Cather fictionalizes some of the details, the story of Gallegos's dismissal is essentially accurate; W.J. Howlett gives Father Machebeuf's full account of the affair in Life of Bishop Machebeuf(ed. Thomas J. Steele and Ronald S. Brockway. Denver, CO: Regis College, 1987, pp. 191-94; reprint of W. J. Howlett, Life of the Right Reverend Joseph P. Machebeuf, D.D. Pueblo, CO: Franklin Press, 1908).
Howlett's account, however, does not document Gallegos's extensive political activity. José Manuel Gallegos was born in Abiquiu (q.v.), Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, October 30, 1815. He attended parochial schools and then studied theology at the seminary in Durango from which he was graduated in 1840. Throughout his life he held numerous positions in government, including the following: member of the legislative assembly of the department of New Mexico of the Republic of Mexico from 1843 to 1846; member of the constitutional convention for the proposed state of New Mexico; elected Democratic delegate to the 33rd Congress, 1853-1855; member of the 34th Congress until 1856, when he was succeeded by