Tribal Boundaries in the Nass Watershed

By Neil J. Sterritt; Susan Marsden et al. | Go to book overview

7
Conclusion

The requirements of indigenous law have shaped this book and provided the criteria to validate evidence of territorial ownership. In Chapter 2, carefully documented evidence from the adaawk established the existence of ancient settlements in the upper Nass River watershed inhabited by ancestors of the Gitksan and Gitanyow, who still own the surrounding territories; it established the early migrations of the ancestors of the Gitanyow into the Nass River territories that are still owned by the Gitanyow; and it laid out the periods of war in which generations of Gitanyow, Kisgaga'as, Kispiox, and Kuldo successfully defended their territories. The Gitksan have thus presented the adaawk concerning the acquisition and defence of their territories. These adaawk, and the associated songs, poles, and crests, continue to this day, thereby proving the generations of feasts in which they have been perpetuated and witnessed.

In Chapters 3 to 5, the documentary record of the Gitanyow, Gitksan, and Nisga'a proves the knowledge of the territories and the names of their sites (see Map 36 and the Glossary of Place Names). This evidence of ownership has been passed down in an unbroken line and continues in the minds of contemporary Gitksan and Nisga'a.

In Chapter 6, the documentary record of explorers and travellers provided witness to the presence on their territories of the Gitksan, Gitanyow, and Nisga'a. This evidence strengthens the proof of ownership by the Gitksan of their territories.

The wealth of information in this book provides abundant evidence for the location of tribal boundaries in the Nass watershed, as set out below.


Kuldo, Kispiox, and Kisgaga'as Boundaries on the Upper Nass

First, the Kuldo-Gitanyow boundary is situated at Xsigisi'am'maldid on the Bell-Irving River; the Kispiox-Gitanyow boundary is situated at Luubaxgagat on the Nass River.

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Tribal Boundaries in the Nass Watershed
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Maps ix
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • Abbreviations xiii
  • 1- Introduction 3
  • 2- The Adaawḵ Record and Tribal Boundaries in the Nass Watershed 15
  • Introduction 15
  • Conclusion 57
  • 3- The Gitksan Documentary Record: Gitanyow 59
  • 4- The Gitksan Documentary Record: Kuldo, Kisgaga'As, and Kispiox 98
  • Introduction 98
  • Conclusion 130
  • 5- The Nisga'A Documentary Record 132
  • Introduction 132
  • Conclusion 192
  • 6- Witnesses on the Land: The Euro-Canadian Record, 1832-1930 194
  • Introduction 194
  • Conclusion 240
  • 7- Conclusion 243
  • 8- Epilogue 251
  • Appendices 253
  • Notes 272
  • Glossary of Terms 293
  • Glossary of Place Names 295
  • Glossary of Chiefs' Names 312
  • Bibliography 315
  • Index 319
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