The Soviet Bureaucratic Elite: A Case Study of the Ukrainian Apparatus

By John A. Armstrong | Go to book overview

Footnotes to Chapter 1
1
Karl Mannheim, Man and Society in an Age of Reconstruction ( New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1940), p. 75. Cf. Harold D. Lasswell, Politics: Who Gets What, When, How, reprinted in The Political Writings of Harold D. Lasswell (Glencoe, Ill.: The Free Press, 1951), p. 444.
2
For a detailed analysis, see Barrington Moore Jr., Soviet Politics: The Dilemma of Power ( Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1950), especially pp. 64-71 and 228-268; cf. Alex Inkeles, "Social Stratification and Mobility in the Soviet Union: 1940-1950", American Sociological Review, XV ( August, 1950), 465-479.
3
Joseph Stalin, Mastering Bolshevism ( New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1937), p. 36, as quoted in Merle Fainsod, How Russia Is Ruled ( Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1954), p. 178.
4
Vilfredo Pareto, The Mind and Society, ed. by Arthur Livingston, trans. by Arthur Livingston and Andrew Bonjorno ( New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1935), IV, 1573.
5
M. A. Suslov, Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( CPSU), in his speech to the Twentieth Congress of the CPSU, Pravda Ukrainy, February 18, 1956.
6
Cf. Harold D. Lasswell, Daniel Lerner, and C. Easton Rothwell, The Comparative Study of Elites, Hoover Institute Studies, Series B: Elites, No. 1 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1952), p. 8.
7
"Bureaucracy" in Soviet usage has a negative connotation similar to the frequent popular use of the term in Western countries. While the Soviet institutions here mentioned fit the modern sociological definition of a bureaucracy, it should be noted that they differ from Max Weber classical model described in "Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft", Grundriss der Sozialoekonomik, 3rd. ed. (Tuebingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1947), pp. 650-678. As there are two excellent critiques of Max Weber's definition, with special reference to the Soviet case, it does not seem necessary to present a detailed discussion of this difference here. See Philip Selznick, "An Approach to a Theory of Bureaucracy", American Sociological Review, VIII ( February, 1943), 47-54; also see Helen Contas, "Max Weber's Two Conceptions of Bureaucracy", American Journal of Sociology, LXIII ( January, 1958), 400-409.
8
The Smolensk archive, which contains not only compiled data but also original documents concerning officials, was captured by the Germans during World War II and is the subject of a study now being completed by Merle Fainsod. This material relates primarily to the pre-Purge period.
9
While it was manifestly impractical to examine all regional newspapers, "spot checks" were made of the following: Komunist [Communist], Erivan, Armenian S.S.R.; Sovetskaia Belorussiia [ Soviet Belorussia], Minsk, Belorussian S.S.R.; Sovetskaia Kirgiziia [Soviet Kirgizia], Frunze, Kirgiz S.S.R.; and Turkmenskaia Iskra [Turkmen Spark], Ashkhabad, Turkmen S.S.R. Comparative data from these papers will be introduced later in this study.
10
Actually, in order to establish these circumstances and to ensure that earlier information on present officials was not available, Ukrainian materials and the Moscow press (Vecherniaia Moskva, Pravda, Izvestia) were examined for all of 1937 and 1938 and, in certain instances, for even earlier periods.

-9-

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The Soviet Bureaucratic Elite: A Case Study of the Ukrainian Apparatus
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Acknowledgments *
  • Contents *
  • 1- Identifying the Decision-Makers 1
  • Footnotes to Chapter 1 9
  • 2- The Elite as a Social Group 11
  • Footnotes to Chapter 2 28
  • 3- Training for Rule 31
  • Footnotes to Chapter 3 43
  • 4- Bosses of the Apparatus 45
  • Footnotes to Chapter 4 58
  • Footnotes to Chapter 5 70
  • 6- Mechanisms of Control 72
  • Footnotes to Chapter 6 85
  • 7- Indoctrination Specialists 88
  • Footnotes to Chapter 7 103
  • 8- The Apparatus in Crisis: Expansion 105
  • Footnotes to Chapter 8 123
  • 9- The Apparatus in Crisis: War 126
  • Footnotes to Chapter 9 138
  • 10- A New Oligarchy? 142
  • Footnotes to Chapter 10 151
  • Bibliography 152
  • Index 163
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