The Soviet Bureaucratic Elite: A Case Study of the Ukrainian Apparatus

By John A. Armstrong | Go to book overview

8
The Apparatus in Crisis: Expansion

IN THE SOVIET SYSTEM, as in other systems, numerous features which are obscure under ordinary circumstances are revealed when unusual strains arise. In many respects the Soviet system has operated in a constant state of crisis. It is possible, however, to distinguish periods during which the apparatus as a whole, or its regional branches, has undergone crises of special severity.

The extension of Soviet rule to the West Ukraine provides a peculiar opportunity to observe the adaptation of the Ukrainian apparatus to a situation of unusual difficulty. From the purely physical standpoint the increase in the responsibilities of the apparatus was striking: the nine million inhabitants of the areas annexed between 1939 and 1945 increased the population of the Ukrainian U.S.S.R. by nearly one-third, while the increase in area (about 110,- 000 square kilometers) was about twenty-three per cent.

The physical increase was only a minor aspect of the problem confronting the regime, however. Since the new territories had never been under Soviet rule, the long process of elimination of opposition elements and of indoctrination of a new generation had not even begun. Moreover, ideological factors made it very difficult to secure the acceptance of Communism in the West Ukraine. Half of the population consisted of Greek Catholics adhering to Rome though using a Slavonic rite. The Church served as a rallying point for anti- Communist sentiment. In addition, the long struggle of the West Ukrainians against foreign domination had developed a strong nationalist feeling centering around tightly organized conspiratorial parties which carried on a bitter struggle against the new rulers.

Economic and social conditions also made the Communists' task difficult. Even compared to the East Ukraine, rural elements predominated. The Jews, who formed a very large part of the urban

-105-

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The Soviet Bureaucratic Elite: A Case Study of the Ukrainian Apparatus
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Acknowledgments *
  • Contents *
  • 1- Identifying the Decision-Makers 1
  • Footnotes to Chapter 1 9
  • 2- The Elite as a Social Group 11
  • Footnotes to Chapter 2 28
  • 3- Training for Rule 31
  • Footnotes to Chapter 3 43
  • 4- Bosses of the Apparatus 45
  • Footnotes to Chapter 4 58
  • Footnotes to Chapter 5 70
  • 6- Mechanisms of Control 72
  • Footnotes to Chapter 6 85
  • 7- Indoctrination Specialists 88
  • Footnotes to Chapter 7 103
  • 8- The Apparatus in Crisis: Expansion 105
  • Footnotes to Chapter 8 123
  • 9- The Apparatus in Crisis: War 126
  • Footnotes to Chapter 9 138
  • 10- A New Oligarchy? 142
  • Footnotes to Chapter 10 151
  • Bibliography 152
  • Index 163
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