Cæsar's conquest. The pretexts given--the invasion of Gaul by the Germans of Ariovistus and by the Helvetii. First victories of Cæsar ( 58 B.C.). The divisions of Gaul--the patriciate and the popular party. The first period of the Gallic Wars ( 58-55 B.C.). The Gauls not yet aware that their independence is at stake. Second period ( 54-53 B.C.). Vercingetorix. Defeat of Cæsar before Gergovia. Alise-Sainte-Reine. Conquered Gaul. The task of the conquerors. Gaul subjected to Roman civilisation. The administrative work of the Romans. Reasons of the romanisation of Gaul. Latin Gaul ( second century B.C.). The Gallo-Roman towns. Paris under the Roman Emperors. The culture of Latin literature--Ausonius. Organisation of the land--the large estate, the villa. Spread of Christianity--its beginnings in Gaul, its development. Persecution. The martyrs of Lyons, Sainte Blandine. Saint Denis and the Martyrs' Mount. The basilicas. The German menace on the Rhine. Invasion of the Cimbri and the Teutons ( second century B.C.). Defence of Gaul organised by the Emperors. First appearance of the Alemanni and the Franks. The terrible avalanche of the years 275-276. The Germanic peoples protected and entrusted with the defence of the Empire. Germans established in Gaul by the Romans. Gaul in the fourth century. Saint Martin. Arianism. Its spread. Its importance. The great estates of the fourth century. The colonies.
ABOUT the year 62 B.C. the pressure of the Germans on the Rhine became more and more menacing.
The most important of their nations, the Suevi, occupied Suabia and Franconia. They rendered obeisance to a certain Ariovistus, a sort of barbarian genius, who lived always under canvas, was greedy for battle, and was carving out a great Empire for himself by the sword. Ariovistus hastened to respond to the appeal of the Sequani, who were established in the present district of Franche