The founders of the Carlovingian family, Saint Arnulf and Saint Pepin de Landen. Gallo-Roman ancestors. Charles Martel. His military valour. Victory of Poitiers ( October 17, 732). Causes of the final retreat of the Arabs. The policy of Charles Martel towards the clergy. Childebrand. The benefices. Pepin the Short and Carloman. Retreat of Carloman to Monte Cassino. Alliance between the Papacy and the French Monarchy. Pepin has himself proclaimed King ( 751). Stephen II places himself and the Church of Rome under the rule of the King of France. Pepin's campaign in Italy. The Exarchate of Ravenna. Wars in Aquitaine. Duke Waifar. Early wars of Charlemagne. Partition of the kingdom of the Franks between the two sons of Pepin the Short, Charlemagne and Carloman. Charlemagne. Death of Carloman. Charlemagne seizes his heritage. The policy of Big-footed Bertha. Charlemagne breaks off relations with the King of the Lombards. Campaign in Italy. The General Assemblies under the Carlovingians. The Saxon Wars, Wittekind. Ecclesiastical nature of the government of Charlemagne. Dukes, Counts and Marquises. Capitularies and missi. Louis the Pious King of Aquitaine. Spanish campaigns. The disaster of Ronceveaux ( August 15, 788). Rolando, Duke of the Breton Marches. Campaign against the Huns. Appearance of the Normans. Charlemagne, Emperor of the West ( December 25, 800). The Empress Irene. The Imperial Palace at Aix-la-Chapelle. The Court. Portrait of Charlemagne. End of his reign. Charlemagne loses his eldest sons. His lassitude. Death of the Emperor ( January 28, 814). Reign of Louis the Pious. His struggles with his sons. Judith of Bavaria. Partition of the Empire. The higher clergy against the Emperor. Pitiful end of Louis the Pious. Charles the Bald. His alliance with his brother Louis II, the German Emperor. Battle of Fontanet. The oaths of Strasbourg ( 841). Partition of Verdun ( 843). The Normans arrive in Paris ( 845). Edict of Quierzy-sur-Oise ( 877). Charles the Bald, Emperor of the West. His death ( 877). Last days of the Carlovingian dynasty. Norman, Hungarian and Saracen invasions. Charles the Fat, King of France. Anarchy.