31
Other Industries

Cement Manufacture

Cement occupies a special place in the economy of South Africa for apart from its many uses common to all civilized countries it has played a vital role in mining (i.e. in the Francois cementation of the shafts) and in the construction of storage dams for water supply and irrigation.

The location of the cement industry has been determined by the occurrence within the same area of suitable limestone and clay and by proximity to railways serving the main centres of consumption. At present there are nine factories in the Union with a total output in 1952-3 of over 2 million tons of Portland cement valued at £3 million. They are located in three main areas. Most important is the Lichtenberg-Ottoshoop-Mafeking area in the western Transvaal and northern Cape where, in proximity to the Cape to Rhodesia and Kimberley to Johannesburg railways, the Dolomite provides suitable raw material. Of increasing importance with the development of the Orange Free State goldfield are the factories near Hennenman, which situated near the Cape Town-Bloemfontein-Johannesburg main line, work limestone formed by the decomposition of dolerite of post- Karoo age. Near Cape Town limestone and clay from the Malmesbury Series support an industry providing for the needs of the south-western Cape. At all these works ordinary Portland cement for general purposes, rapid hardening Portland cement and waterproof Portland cement are made, but not special cements which still have to be imported. The total production of the three types of Portland cement more than satisfies Union needs and there is a small export to other African territories.


The Ceramic Industries

The ceramic industries using clay, refractory materials and minerals such as felspar are well established in South Africa.

Common brick clays are widespread and the location of the brick-making industry is governed mainly by proximity to markets. The brickworks are hence concentrated near the big urban centres. In most area the shales of the Karoo

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